Cell reproduction
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Cell Reproduction. Mitosis & Meiosis. http://biotech-adventure.okstate.edu/low/basics/mitosis/mitosis-diagram/diagram.gif. Cell Cycle. http://www.bmb.psu.edu/courses/biotc489/notes/cycle.jpg. Mitosis. One type of cell division.

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Cell Reproduction

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Cell reproduction

Cell Reproduction

Mitosis & Meiosis


Cell reproduction

http://biotech-adventure.okstate.edu/low/basics/mitosis/mitosis-diagram/diagram.gif


Cell cycle

Cell Cycle

http://www.bmb.psu.edu/courses/biotc489/notes/cycle.jpg


Mitosis

Mitosis

  • One type of cell division

Cell process in which the nucleus divides to form two nuclei identical to each other, and identical to the original nucleus, in a series of steps (prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase)


Mitosis allows for growth and replaces worn out or damaged cells

Mitosis allows for growth and replaces worn out or damaged cells.


Interphase

Interphase

  • Period of growth & development

  • Hereditary information (DNA) copied (replicated / duplicated)

  • Cells that do not divide (nerves) are always in interphase


Cell reproduction

http://biotech-adventure.okstate.edu/low/basics/mitosis/phases/interphase/interphase.gif


Prophase

Prophase

  • DNA begins to shorten & thicken

    • Now called chromatids / chromosomes

  • Centromeres form

  • Nuclear membrane breaks apart

  • Spindle fibers form


Cell reproduction

http://biotech-adventure.okstate.edu/low/basics/mitosis/phases/prophase/prophase.gif


Metaphase

Metaphase

  • Chromatids / chromosomes line up

  • Centromere attaches to spindle fibers


Cell reproduction

http://biotech-adventure.okstate.edu/low/basics/mitosis/phases/metaphase/metaphase.gif


Anaphase

Anaphase

  • Centromeres divide

  • Spindle fibers shorten

  • Chromatid pairs separate – move to ends of cell

  • Chromatids are now called

    • Each ½ of the pair is now called a chromosome


Cell reproduction

http://biotech-adventure.okstate.edu/low/basics/mitosis/phases/anaphase/anaphase.gif


Telophase

Telophase

  • Spindle fibers disappear

  • Chromosomes uncoil

  • Nuclear membrane forms

  • Cell divides (cytokinesis)


Cell reproduction

http://biotech-adventure.okstate.edu/low/basics/mitosis/phases/telophase/telophase.gif


Cell reproduction

http://biology.nebrwesleyan.edu/benham/mitosis/


Mitosis animation

Mitosis Animation

http://www.johnkyrk.com/mitosis.html


Results of mitosis

Results of Mitosis

  • Division of nucleus

    • Nuclei are identical to each other

      • Same number & type of chromosomes


Asexual reproduction

Asexual Reproduction

A type of reproduction - fission, budding, and regeneration - in which a new organism is produced from one parent and has DNA identical to the parent organism.


Asexual reproduction1

Asexual Reproduction

  • Offspring produced from one organism

  • Hereditary information is identical

  • Mitosis is one form of asexual reproduction


Sexual reproduction

Sexual Reproduction

Meiosis


Sexual reproduction1

Sexual Reproduction

A type of reproduction in which two sex cells, usually an egg and a sperm, join to form a zygote, which will develop into a new organism with a unique identity.


Sexual reproduction results in a great variety or diversity of offspring

Sexual reproduction results in a great variety, or diversity, of offspring.


Meiosis

Meiosis

  • The nucleus divides twice

    • Meiosis I

    • Meiosis II


Cell reproduction

http://biotech-adventure.okstate.edu/low/basics/meiosis/diagram/


Interphase1

Interphase

  • DNA is duplicated


Prophase i

Prophase I

  • DNA shorten & thicken

    • Forms chromatids / chromosomes


Cell reproduction

http://biotech-adventure.okstate.edu/low/basics/meiosis/phases/prophase/leptotene/leptotene.gif


Metaphase i

Metaphase I

  • Copied chromatids / chromosomes line up in middle of cell

  • Centromeres attach to spindle fibers


Cell reproduction

http://biotech-adventure.okstate.edu/low/basics/meiosis/phases/metaphase-I/metaphase-I.gif


Anaphase i

Anaphase I

  • Chromatid pairs are pulled apart

    • They DO NOT separate

  • Move to ends of cell


Cell reproduction

http://biotech-adventure.okstate.edu/low/basics/meiosis/phases/anaphase-I/anaphase-i.gif


Telophase i

Telophase I

  • Cell divides

  • No further replication of hereditary material


Cell reproduction

http://biotech-adventure.okstate.edu/low/basics/meiosis/phases/telophase-I/telophase-I.gif


There are now two cells both cells have full sets of genetic material chromosomes

There are now two cells. Both cells have full sets of genetic material (chromosomes)


Prophase ii

Prophase II

  • Similar to mitosis

    • Starts with TWO cells instead of one

      • Spindle fibers appear


Cell reproduction

http://biotech-adventure.okstate.edu/low/basics/meiosis/phases/prophase-II/prophase-II.gif


Metaphase ii

Metaphase II

  • Duplicated chromatid / chromosomes line up in middle of cell

  • Spindle fibers attach to centromeres


Cell reproduction

http://biotech-adventure.okstate.edu/low/basics/meiosis/phases/metaphase-II/metaphase-II.gif


Anaphase ii

Anaphase II

  • Centromere divides

    • Chromatids separate & move to ends of cell

      • Chromatids are now individual chromosomes


Cell reproduction

http://biotech-adventure.okstate.edu/low/basics/meiosis/phases/anaphase-II/anaphase-II.gif


Telophase ii

Telophase II

  • Spindle fibers disappear

  • Nuclear membranes form at each end of cell

  • Cells divide

    • Results in 4 cells

      • Each with ½ the original number of chromosomes


Cell reproduction

http://biotech-adventure.okstate.edu/low/basics/meiosis/phases/telophase-II/telophase-II.gif


Meiosis animation

Meiosis Animation

http://www.johnkyrk.com/meiosis.html


In summary meiosis

In summary:Meiosis

  • Two cells form during meiosis I

  • In meiosis II, both of these cells form two cells

  • The two divisions of the nucleus result in four sex cells (gametes)

  • Each has one-half the number of chromosomes in its nucleus that was in the original nucleus


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