Unit 1 3 nuclear chemistry
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Unit 1.3 Nuclear Chemistry. 1.3-2 Nuclear Reactions and Energy. Important Terms. Nuclear Fission Chain Reaction Nuclear Reactor Nuclear Fusion. The Power of the Nucleus. Nuclear reactions involve enormous changes in energy. E=mc 2 E – energy m – mass

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Unit 1.3 Nuclear Chemistry

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Unit 1 3 nuclear chemistry

Unit 1.3Nuclear Chemistry

1.3-2 Nuclear Reactions and Energy


Important terms

Important Terms

  • Nuclear Fission

  • Chain Reaction

  • Nuclear Reactor

  • Nuclear Fusion


The power of the nucleus

The Power of the Nucleus

  • Nuclear reactions involve enormous changes in energy.

    E=mc2

    • E – energy

    • m – mass

    • c – speed of light (3.00 x 108 m/s)

  • During a nuclear reaction a small amount of mass can be converted into a large amount of energy.


Nuclear fission

Nuclear Fission

  • Nuclear fission is the process of splitting a nucleus into two or more smaller fragments.

    • This is accompanied by a large release of energy.


Nuclear fission using uranium 235

Nuclear Fission Using Uranium-235

  • Note that the sums of the mass numbers on the left and right are equal.


Nuclear fission1

Nuclear Fission

  • As WWII started scientists were trying to find a way to sustain nuclear fission in a chain reaction.

    • A chain reaction is a continuing series of reactions in which each produces a product that can react again.


Nuclear fission2

Nuclear Fission

  • In the fission of uranium, each neutron produced has the potential to cause the fission of another atom of uranium-235.

    • In order for a chain reaction to occur there must be enough of a sample of the material for the neutrons to collide with other atoms.


Nuclear fission3

Nuclear Fission

  • Critical Mass: the point where the chain reaction can become self-sustaining is referred to as critical mass

  • Supercritical mass

    • If the amount of fissionable material is much greater than the critical mass the chain reaction escalates out of control and an explosion results.


Nuclear fission supercritical

Nuclear Fission – Supercritical

  • All of the energy is released at once.

  • This is what happens when an atomic bomb explodes.


Nuclear fission and nuclear energy

Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Energy

  • In order for nuclear energy to be useful the reaction must be controlled so that the energy can be released slowly.


Nuclear fission4

Nuclear Fission

  • Nuclear power plants generate electrical energy through the controlled fission of uranium.

    • This is done in a nuclear reactor

      • A nuclear reactor is a device that is used to extract energy from radioactive fuel.


Nuclear fission reactors

Nuclear Fission - Reactors


Nuclear reactors and pollution

Nuclear Reactors and Pollution

  • Nuclear reactors do not produce CO2 and other pollutants.

  • They do produce radioactive waste that is difficult to safely dispose of.

    • New technologies allow much of the waste to be decayed, reducing the amount of hazardous waste produced.

    • There is some risk of the

      release of this nuclear

      waste into the

      environment.


Nuclear fission problems with nuclear reactors

Nuclear Fission: Problems with Nuclear Reactors

  • Nuclear energy costs more to produce than energy produced through the burning of fossil fuels.

  • It is more expensive than using fossil fuels


Nuclear fusion

Nuclear Fusion

  • Nuclear fusion is the process of combining two or more nuclei to form a larger nucleus.

    • Nuclear fusion is the process that occurs in the sun and other stars to produce energy.

  • Nuclear Fusion…Hydrogen to Helium


Nuclear fusion on the sun

Nuclear Fusion on the Sun


Nuclear fusion1

Nuclear Fusion

  • The fusion of hydrogen to produce helium produces 20x more energy than the fissionof the same amount of uranium.

    • It does not produce any radioactive waste.

    • Fusion reactions are easier to control than fission reaction.


Problems with nuclear fusion

Problems with Nuclear Fusion

  • Difficulty initiating and containing a fusion reaction has prevented its use as a practical energy source.

    • Nuclear fusion reactions require a large amount ofenergy to start the fusion reaction.

    • In order to initiate a fusion reaction on earth a temperature greater than 100million Kelvins would be required.

  • No material exists on earth that could contain the reaction.

  • A great goal for the future!!!


Fission vs fusion

Fission vs Fusion


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