Rio+20 & Underutilized Species Trends, progress and future needs . Stefano Padulosi Bioversity International . International Consultation: “20 Years of Rio: Biodiversity, Development, Livelihoods ” M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, Chennai, February 15-17, 2012. Objective
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Rio+20 & Underutilized Species
Trends, progress and future needs
International Consultation: “20 Years of Rio: Biodiversity, Development, Livelihoods”M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, Chennai, February 15-17, 2012
The Great ParadoxofTodays’ Agriculture
Once pillar ofsustainability, nowthousandsofspecieshavebecomeirrelevant in mainstreamAgriculture…
Neglected and Underutilized Species from past popularity…
...to current decline!
‘The right to development must be fulfilled so as to equitably meet developmental and environmental needs of present and future generations’
Principle 3. The Right to development
Example: wealth of species that can be strategic allies in sustainable development
Kenya: 800 food species
Ghana: 2,500 useful
Mediterranean: 137 vegetables
China: 5,000 medicinal
North America: 1,112 edible
India: 2,500 medicinal
800 fruit trees
Sahel: 800 edible
Swaziland: 200 edible
168 home gardens
The special situation and needs of developing countries, particularly the least developed and those most environmentally vulnerable, shall be given special priority. International actions in the field of environment and development should also address the interests and needs of all countries.
Principle 6. Priority for the Least Developed
Example: Cañihua(Chenopodiumpallidicaule): importantsource of resistancetofrostforAndeancountries
States should cooperate to strengthen endogenous capacity-building for sustainable development by improving scientific understanding through exchanges of scientific and technological knowledge, and by enhancing the development, adaptation, diffusion and transfer of technologies, including new and innovative technologies.
Principle 9. Capacity Building for Sustainable Development
Bolivia: drudgery in processing quinoa
Elimination of drudgery
Example: Capacity Building at University level
Strengthening capacities through strategic alliances with private sector
In order to protect the environment, the precautionary approach shall be widely applied by States according to their capabilities. Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation.
Principle 15. Precautionary principle
National Geographic 2011
Study conducted in 1983 by the Rural Advancement Foundation International gave a clue to the scope of the problem. It compared USDA listings of seed varieties sold by commercial U.S. seed houses in 1903 with those in the U.S. National Seed Storage Laboratory in 1983. The survey, which included 66 crops, found that about 93 percent of the varieties had gone extinct..
Ex situ conservation: NUS largely under-represented in the world’ s 1740 gene banks (ca 15-20% of 7.4 mil acc.)
>80 %of all non-major crop species conserved in ex situ collections (ca 5000/6000) are on average represented by less than 10 accessions..
Genetic erosion of NUS: minor millets
Map of little millet in Kolli Hills: severe genetic erosion taking place in spite of appreciation by people of nutritional and cultural values
Participatory Monitoring & Red Lists for cultivated species
Urgent Questions to Answer:
Biodiversity and Knowledge
Women have a vital role in environmental management and development. Their full participation is therefore essential to achieve sustainable development.
Principle 20. Women have a Vital Role
NUS: amplescopeforcontributingtowardstheempowerment of women
IFAD-NUS Capacity Building Training on Value Addition at Home Sciences College, UAS, Bangalore
Indigenous people and their communities and other local communities have a vital role in environmental management and development because of their knowledge and traditional practices. States should recognize and duly support their identity, culture and interests and enable their effective participation in the achievement of sustainable development.
Principle 22. Indigenous Peoples have a Vital Role
Example: relevance of IK for agrobiodiversity
Bioversity’s descriptor list for date palm (above) and the one (left) developed by Mr Ben Said in Arabic and in his local language (“Tamazight”): precious documentation of classification of date palm diversity by farmersin North Africa.
SafeguardingtheIndigenousKnowledgeassociatedto target crops
1992 Rio Declaration: several Principles relevant to use enhancement of NUS to support sustainable development, particularly in least developed areas
Change of paradigm: shifting to one-size-fits-all approach to a diversity of solutions tailored to local conditions- NUS are part of this new paradigm needed
NUS for the future: recommending special mention of NUS in our renovated commitment to Rio+
Capacity building: from communities to Universities
Role of women: NUS instruments of empowerment
Policy change: need for enabling policies