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Plant Parts. Chapter #3. What are the parts of a plant?. Node : swollen part of stem where buds form (leaves or stems grow here) Cotyledons : leaves formed at first node (cotyledonary node). What are the parts of a plant?. Epicotyl : all of plant formed above cotyledonary node

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Plant Parts

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Plant Parts

Chapter #3


What are the parts of a plant?

Node: swollen part of stem where buds form (leaves or stems grow here)

Cotyledons: leaves formed at first node (cotyledonary node)


What are the parts of a plant?

Epicotyl: all of plant formed above cotyledonary node

Internode: stem tissue between nodes


What are the types of stems?

1) Woody Stem: trees, shrubs, woody perennials

2) Grass Stem: hollow or filled

3) Herbaceous Stem: like woody but softer (clover, alfalfa)

4) Modified Stem:


Types of Modified Stems

  • Bulbs: (onion)

  • Tubers: (potato)

  • Stolons: above ground runner (strawberry)

  • Rhizomes: below ground runners (field bindweed or creeping jenny)


What are the functions of stems?

1) transport water, nutrients, sugars

2) support leaves

3) store food


What are buds?

  • special tissue on stems that can grow into new plant parts

  • buds are described according to:


  • 1) structures into which they grow

    • -Vegetative: leaves or stems

    • -Floral: flowers

    • -Mixed: both

  • 2) where buds appear on stem

    • -Apical: tips of stems

      • -if floral = bush

      • -if vegetative = vine

    • -Axillary: where leaf joins stem

    • -Adventitious: near wounds

  • 3) How buds are arranged


Bud Arrangements

  • Alternate (alfalfa)

  • Opposite (beans)

  • Whorled (not common)


What is Apical Dominance?

  • apical bud tries to make plant grow taller or longer

  • if we remove apical bud, we remove the apical dominance


What are leaves?

  • undergo photosynthesis, exchange gases


What is the difference between a simple leaf and a compound leaf?

  • simple leaf = 2 parts (leaf blade and petiole)


What is the difference between a simple leaf and a compound leaf?

  • Compound leaf: leaf blade divided into leaflets


What are the different types of compound leaves?

  • Palmately compound


What are the different types of compound leaves?

  • Pinately compound


What are the different types of compound leaves?

  • Trifoliate (alfalfa)


What is the Hypocotyl?

  • part of the plant below the cotyledonary node


What purpose does the hypocotyl serve?

1) anchor plant

2) absorb water & nutrients

3) store food


What are the types of root systems?

-Taproot: one main root, has no nodes

  • (carrot, evergreen, kochia)

    -Fibrous root: many nodes, branching root system (grasses)


To help prevent soil erosion, which root system would be best?

  • Fibrous


What are the parts of a grass plant?

  • Leaves = Sheath is the part of leaf that wraps around the stem

  • Joints = internodes

  • Culm = stems


Grass Plant Parts

  • Tillers = branches, all branch from the base of the plant

  • Crown = union of roots and stem

  • Jointing stage = stems elongate rapidly


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