Hantavirus could it occur in the united states
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Hantavirus: Could it occur in the United States?. Danny L. Self (Ph.D.) Walden University PUBH 8165-3 Dr. Lezah Brown-Ellington Winter 2012-2013. Hantavirus. Old World Hantavirus New World Hantavirus. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012 ). Host of the Hantavirus. Rodents

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Hantavirus: Could it occur in the United States?

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Hantavirus could it occur in the united states

Hantavirus: Could it occur in the United States?

Danny L. Self (Ph.D.)

Walden University

PUBH 8165-3

Dr. Lezah Brown-Ellington

Winter 2012-2013


Hantavirus

Hantavirus

  • Old World Hantavirus

  • New World Hantavirus


Hantavirus could it occur in the united states

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012)


Host of the hantavirus

Host of the Hantavirus

  • Rodents

    • Deer mouse

    • Cotton rat

    • Rice rat

    • White-footed mouse


Deer mouse peromyscus maniculatus

Deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus)

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012)


Cotton rat sigmodon hispidus

Cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus)


Rice rat oryzomys palustris

Rice rat (Oryzomys palustris)


White footed mouse peromyscus leucopus

White-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus)


Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome hfrs

Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS)

  • Korean hemorrhagic fever

  • Epidemic hemorrhagic fever

  • Nephropathis epidemica

  • Hantaan virus

  • Dobrava virus

  • Saaremaa virus

  • Seoul virus

  • Puumala virus


Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome hps

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

  • Infectious disease caused by the Hantavirus

    • Flu-like symptoms

  • Occur irregularly in rural areas

  • Numerous types

    • Sin Nombre hantavirus

    • Carried by rodents

  • Treatment limited


Characteristics of some known hantaviruses

Characteristics of some known Hantaviruses

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012)


Comparison of hfrs hps

Comparison of HFRS & HPS

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012)


Clinical case definition

Clinical Case Definition

  • A febrile illness (body temperature of 101° F or greater) characterized by bilateral diffuse interstitial edema that may radiographically resemble ARDS, with respiratory compromise which requires supplemental oxygen, which develops within 72 hours of hospitalization, and occurring in a previously healthy person

  • Unexplained respiratory illness resulting in death, with an autopsy examination demonstrating noncardiogenic pulmonary edema without an identifiable cause


Laboratory criteria for diagnosis

Laboratory Criteria for Diagnosis

  • Detection of hantavirus-specific immunoglobulin M or rising titers of hantavirus-specific immunoglobulin G

  • Detection of hantavirus-specific ribonucleic acid sequence by polymerase chain reaction in clinical specimens

  • Detection of hantavirus antigen by immunohistochemistry


Incidence

Incidence

  • Human to human transmission does not exist

  • U.S. national parks

  • One’s own home


Potential risk activities for hps

Potential risk activities for HPS

  • Opening and cleaning previously unused buildings

  • Housecleaning activities

  • Work-related exposure

  • Campers

  • Hikers


Ecology

Ecology

Enzootic Cycle

Epizootic Cycle

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012)


Transmission of the hantavirus

Transmission of the Hantavirus

(Arizona Geographic Alliance, 2001)


Symptoms

Symptoms

Early Symptoms

Late Symptoms

Lungs fill with fluid

Shortness of breath

  • Fatigue

  • Fever

  • Muscle aches

  • Headaches

  • Dizziness

  • Chills

  • Abdominal problems


Signs tests

Signs & Tests

Results from physical exam

Tests

Blood tests to check for Hantavirus

Complete blood count (CBC)

Complete metabolic panel

Kidney and liver function tests

Chest x-ray

  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

  • Kidney failure

  • Low blood pressure (hypotension)

  • Low blood oxygen levels


Treatment

Treatment

  • Oxygen

  • Breath tube or machine

  • Ribavirin


Complications

Complications

  • Kidney failure

  • Heart failure

  • Lung failure


Expectations prognosis

Expectations(Prognosis)

  • Advances rapidly

  • If lungs are infected death will follow


Mortality

Mortality

  • 50%


Prevention

Prevention

  • Avoid exposure to rodent urine or droppings


Incidences in the united states

Incidences in the United States

  • 1993

    • Four Corners

    • Appalachian Trail

  • 2012

    • Yosemite National Park


Hantavirus could it occur in the united states

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012)


Annual u s hps cases case fatality 1993 2011

Annual U.S. HPS Cases & Case-fatality (1993-2011)

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012)


Yosemite national park

Yosemite National Park

  • September 2012

    • 10 confirmed cases

    • 3 deaths


September 6 2012 case count state of residence map

September 6, 2012: Case Count (State of Residence) Map

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012)


September 13 2012 case count state of residence map

September 13, 2012: Case Count (State of Residence) Map

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012)


Current case count state of residence map

Current Case Count (State of Residence) Map

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012)


Incidences outside the united states

Incidences Outside the United States

  • HFRS

    • 150,000 – 200,000 cases

  • HPS

    • 200 cases


Hantavirus could it occur in the united states

Geographical representation of approximate Hantaviral disease incidence by country per year.

Jonsson C B et al. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 2010;23:412-441


Questions

Questions?


References

References

  • Arizona Geographic Alliance. (2001). Hantavirus Student Guide: Arizona Geographic Alliance. Retrieved from Arizona Geographic Alliance: http://alliance.la.asu.edu/model/geoliteracyCD/LessonFiles/DornVaagen/DornHantaS.pdf

  • Bi, Z., Formenty, P. B., & Roth, C. E. (2007). Hantavirus Infection: A Review and Global Update. J Infect Developing Countries 2008, 3-23.

  • Ceneters for Disease Control and Prevention. (1994, December 4). MMWR - Emerging Infectious Diseases Hantavirus Puolmonary Syndrome --Virginia, 1993: Ceneters for Disease Control and Prevention . Retrieved from Ceneters for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00033796.htm

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011, May 17). Hantavirus: Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/hantavirus/hfrs/index.html

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012 , August 29). Rodents in the United States that caryy Hantavirus: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/hantavirus/rodents/index.html

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012, August 29). Deer mouse habitat in North America: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/hantavirus/rodents/deer-mouse.html


References1

References

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012, August 29). Ecology - Hantavirus: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/hantavirus/technical/hanta/ecology.html

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012, December 26). Hantavirus - Surveillance: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/hantavirus/surveillance/state-of-exposure.html

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012, August 29). Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Case Definition: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/hantavirus/health-care-workers/hps-case-definition.html

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012, August 29). Hantavirus: Virology: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/hantavirus/technical/hanta/virology.html

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012, August 29). How people get Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/hantavirus/hps/transmission.html


References2

References

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012, September 17). Outbreak of Hantavirus Infection in Yosemite National Park: Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention. Retrieved from Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/hantavirus/outbreaks/yosemite-national-park-2012.html

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012, August 29). Signs & Symptoms for Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/hantavirus/hps/symptoms.html

  • Jonsson, C. B., Figueiredo, L. T., & Vapalahti, O. (2010). A Global Perspective on Hantavirus Ecology, Epidemiology, and Disease. American Society of Microbiology, 415-441.

  • Mayo Clinic Staff. (2011, February 11). Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrom: Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from Mayo Clinic: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hantavirus-pulmonary-syndrome/DS00900

  • PubMed Health. (2011, March 11). Hantavirus: PubMed Health. Retrieved from PubMed Health: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002358/

  • The Free Dictionary. (2013). Medical-dictionary: The Free Dictionary. Retrieved from The Free Dictionary: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com


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