The human population l.jpg
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 34

THE HUMAN POPULATION PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 160 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

THE HUMAN POPULATION. Chapter 5 Chapter 6 . Population Explosion. > 1800’s – slow growth 1830 – 1 billion Time needed to add 1 billion 1930 – 2 billion100 years 1960 – 3 billion 30 years 1975 – 4 billion 15 years 1987 – 5 billion 12 years 1999 – 6 billion 12 years

Download Presentation

THE HUMAN POPULATION

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


The human population l.jpg

THE HUMAN POPULATION

Chapter 5 Chapter 6


Population explosion l.jpg

Population Explosion

  • > 1800’s – slow growth

  • 1830 – 1 billion Time needed to add 1 billion

  • 1930 – 2 billion100 years

  • 1960 – 3 billion 30 years

  • 1975 – 4 billion 15 years

  • 1987 – 5 billion 12 years

  • 1999 – 6 billion 12 years

  • 2011 – 7 billion (?) 12 years

For information purposes only


Population growth through history l.jpg

POPULATION GROWTH THROUGH HISTORY

12

11

2100

10

9

Modern

Age

Old

8

Iron

Middle

Bronze

Stone

Age

New Stone Age

Ages

Age

Age

7

Future

6

2000

5

4

1975

3

1950

2

1900

1

1800

Black Death

The Plague

2000

1+ million

7000

6000

5000

3000

1000

A.D.

4000

A.D.

A.D.

A.D.

A.D.

A.D.

years

B.C.

B.C.

B.C.

B.C.

B.C.

B.C.

B.C.

1

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

Source: Population Reference Bureau; and United Nations, World Population Projections to 2100 (1998).


Major human ages l.jpg

Major Human Ages

  • Hunter-gatherer 100,000-10,000 years ago

  • Agricultural Era 10,000 – 1700’s

  • Industrial Revolution

    • Earlymid 1700’s - 1940

    • Modern1940 – present


The world population has been growing rapidly over the past 100 years why l.jpg

The world population has been growing rapidly over the past 100 years. Why?

  • Is it due to an increase in birth rate?

  • Is it due to a decrease in death rate?

  • Is it due to longer life expectancy?

  • Is it a combination of these factors?

  • The answers to this question can be found by studying demography. – to be examined later


Glossary l.jpg

Glossary

Look up these terms and understand their meaning

  • Define the following terms:

  • Birth Rate (BR)

  • Death Rate (DR)

  • Rate of Natural Increase (RNI)

    • BR – DR

  • Total Fertility Rate (TFR)

  • Infant Mortality

  • Life Expectancy

  • Doubling time

  • GNI PPP per capita and GNP

  • Replacement level fertility (RLF)


  • World economic divisions l.jpg

    World Economic Divisions

    • Low-income countries GNI < $766

    • Middle-income countries GNI $766-$9385

    • High-income countries GNI >$9385

    • More Developed countries (Developed) – High-income

    • Less Developed countries (Developing) – Low and Middle income

      GNI = Gross National Income


    Two worlds developed world l.jpg

    Two Worlds – Developed World

    • 18% of world’ population

    • wealthy nations - use 80% of world’s resources

    • affluence – over consumption

    • slow or no population growth

    • high per person environmental impact

    • I = P.A.T


    Two worlds developing world l.jpg

    Two Worlds – Developing World

    • 82% of world’ population

    • Low and middle-income nations - use 20% of world’s resources

    • 28% (1.5 billion people) of the population of developing world live on

    • rapid population growth

    • low per person environmental impact

    • 28% live on less than $1/day


    World population 2007 l.jpg

    World Population - 2007


    Slide11 l.jpg

    • Examine the “2007 World Population Data Sheet” . Print a copy of the 2007 Data Sheet pdf file (I gave you a copy of this).

    • How do BR, DR, TFI, Life expectancy etc. differ in the More Developed and Less Developed World?


    Slide12 l.jpg

    • 18% of the world’s population live in developed world, 82% in less developed world.

    • 76 million people added to the world population per year.

    • 98% of population growth is occurring in developing countries. Why?


    Quality of life indicators l.jpg

    Quality of Life Indicators

    • The United Nations rates a countries Human Development Index (HDI) (external link) on the basis of the following quality of life indicators:

    • Life expectancy - living a long and healthy life

    • Adult literacy rate and

    • Purchasing power parity, PPP - having a decent standard of living (measured by, income).

    • These factors gives insight into the ability of population to take care of itself.

    • A low income society will not have the money (GNI) to spend on food, shelter jobs and health care which affects the Infant Mortality Rate and Life Expectancy.


    Slide14 l.jpg

    Examine the trend, there is no need to memorize the numbers


    Slide15 l.jpg

    • Replacement level fertility (RLF)

    • 2.03 for developed countries

    • 2.16 for developing countries

    • Currently

    • More developed countries TFR = 1.6

    • Less developed countries (ex. China) TFR = 3.3


    Slide16 l.jpg

    Examine the trend, there is no need to memorize the numbers


    Population increase and growth rate five year periods l.jpg

    Population Increase and Growth Rate, Five-Year Periods

    Percent increase per year

    Millions

    Source: United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision (medium scenario), 2005.


    Quality of life l.jpg

    Quality of Life

    • What are the effects of population growth on the quality of life in the developing world?

    • Poverty

    • Malnutrition

    • Unsafe water

    • Diseases

    • Lack of housing

    • Undermines economic growth

    • Environmental degradation

    Use the text to examine these factors


    What options are available to rural poor l.jpg

    What options are available to rural poor ?

    • Over-cultivation – soil erosion

    • Farm marginal land

    • Illegal activities (poaching, drugs, prostitution)

    • Rural to urban movement - Urban ghettos

    • Emigration – legal or illegal


    Urbanization l.jpg

    Urbanization

    Urbanization

    Largest Urban Agglomerations, 1950, 2000, 2015Source: United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects, The 1999 Revision.

    15 megacities (>10 million) in developing world


    The poorest of the poor l.jpg

    The poorest of the poor

    • 1.5 billion people live on<$1/day

    • Lack:

    • adequate food

    • decent housing

    • jobs

    • health care

    • results in high infant/child mortality and low life expectancy

    • resort to illegal activities, scavenging, begging, prostitution, illegal immigration

    • UN Millenium Development Goals


    Absolute poverty l.jpg

    Absolute Poverty

    • About 1.5 billion people (about 1 person in 4) lives in “absolute poverty”

    • Robert McNamara, former president of the World Bank defines this as

    • “A condition of life so limited by malnutrition, illiteracy, disease, squalid surroundings, high infant mortality, and low life expectancy as to be beneath any reasonable definition of human decency.”


    Environmental effects l.jpg

    Environmental Effects

    • What are the effects of population growth on the environment?

    • Soil erosion

    • Poaching

    • Loss of species

    • Desertification

    • Air/water pollution

    Examine how overpopulation affects these factors


    Affluence l.jpg

    Affluence

    • High consumption of food, lumber, nonrenewable resources (minerals, oil)

    • USA – highest per person consumption of resources

    • High pollution – CO2 , hazardous air and water pollutants

    • Impact on developing countries -tropical forests (lumber), minerals, oil exported.


    Demography population profile l.jpg

    Demography - Population Profile

    • A population profile is a bar graph which shows:

    • The number or percentage of males and females at each age group in a population.

    • Can be used to estimate the future growth of a population.


    Demography l.jpg

    Demography

    • The study of populations, their composition and predictions of future change.

    • Demographer - a person who studies populations and population change over time.


    Example l.jpg

    Example


    Slide28 l.jpg

    • % Natural Increase is determined by the difference between birth rate and death rate.

    • Population Growth is determined by the difference between birth rate plus immigration and death rate plus emigration.

    • Net Migration rate - # of people entering or leaving the population per 1000. A + sign indicated net addition of migrants, a – sign indicated net removal of migrants.


    Slide29 l.jpg

    • BR = 39, DR = 21, % Nat. Increase = 2.1% , Growth Rate = 1.8%, TFR = 5.3, Net Migration = unavailable

    This population is undergoing rapid population growth – pyramid shaped profile


    Slide30 l.jpg

    • Populations with wide bases tend to be “young populations” – have a large number of people below age 15.

    • Have great momentum for future growth as the large number of young will soon enter their reproductive years.


    Slide31 l.jpg

    • BR = 14, DR = 8, % Nat. Increase = 0.6%, Growth Rate =0.9%, TFR = 2.1, Net Migration = 3

    This population is undergoing slow population growth – notice the base is about the same width as the middle section (15-65 year olds)


    Slide32 l.jpg

    • BR = 10, DR = 14, % Nat. Increase = -0.5%, Growth Rate = -0.8%, TFR = 1.4, Net Migration = - 4

    This population is undergoing population shrinkage or negative population growth. Notice the base is smaller than the middle population (15-65 year old) group.


    Slide33 l.jpg

    • Populations with narrow bases are producing few young. Their TFR has been below 2.0 for several years.

    • These populations are shrinking

    • may not have enough workers to support dependants in the future.

    • Many countries of western Europe are shrinking (negative percent natural increase)

    • may encourage their populations to reproduce and/or open their borders to more immigrant workers.


    Predictions vs projections l.jpg

    Predictions vs. Projections

    • In the past, demographers have been incorrect in their predictions.

    • Fertility rates have declined faster than were expected.

    • They now make projections – low, medium, high.

    Source: United Nations Population Division, 2003


  • Login