The entropia virtual machine for desktop grids brad calder andrew a chien ju wang don yang vee 2005
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The Entropia Virtual Machine for Desktop Grids Brad Calder, Andrew A. Chien, Ju Wang, Don Yang – VEE-2005. Raju Kumar CS598C: Virtual Machines. Introduction. Desktop Grids Entropia Desktop Distributed Computing Grid (DCGrid) VMs for protection How was protection provided earlier ?.

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The entropia virtual machine for desktop grids brad calder andrew a chien ju wang don yang vee 2005

The Entropia Virtual Machine for Desktop GridsBrad Calder, Andrew A. Chien, Ju Wang, Don Yang – VEE-2005

Raju Kumar

CS598C: Virtual Machines


Introduction
Introduction

  • Desktop Grids

    • Entropia Desktop Distributed Computing Grid (DCGrid)

  • VMs for protection

    • How was protection provided earlier ?


Overview
Overview

  • DCGrid

  • Goals

  • Entropia VM

  • Results

  • Conclusion



Dcgrid details
DCGrid Details

  • Physical Node Management

    • Resource and Application management

  • Resource Scheduling

    • Scheduling subjobs

  • Job Management

    • Decomposes job into subjobs, deploys subjobs and accumulates results

  • Entropia VM


Entropia vm requirements
Entropia VM Requirements

  • Desktop security

  • Clean execution environment

  • Unobtrusiveness

  • Application security



Entropia vm components contd
Entropia VM Components Contd…

  • Desktop Controller

    • Provides unobtrusiveness

  • Sandbox Execution Layer

    • Provides all features including unobtrusiveness


Wrapping application
Wrapping Application

  • Wrapped inside EVM using binary modification

  • Wrapped interpreters – cmd.exe, Perl, JVM

  • vm.dll as first entry in import table

  • vm.dll’s main() dynamically modifies loaded binaries and required dlls to intercept system calls


Validating binaries
Validating Binaries

  • Checksum of each binary file

    • Whether sandboxed

    • Integrity

  • Configuration file - Checksums for all binaries

    • Encrypted and transferred to EVM

    • Encryption Key – securely communicated

  • CreateProcess for code in a new binary file

    • Check if registered in configuration file

    • Verify checksum


Desktop control
Desktop Control

  • EVM monitors subjob usage of key resources

  • If subjob uses excess resources, subjob’s processes paused or terminated – Acceptable ?

  • Unobtrusiveness –

    • Sandbox Execution Layer – resource usage restriction per process

    • Desktop Controller – resource usage restriction per subjob

  • Processes may belong to EVM or subjob

    • Separate resource control using VM Portal


Evm portal thread
EVM Portal Thread

  • Invisible Portal thread per Sandboxed application

  • Sandboxed application unaware of Portal thread

    • Thread listing does not show Portal thread

    • Terminating Portal thread not allowed by virtualizing relevant system calls

  • Heart-beat maintained between Portal thread and Desktop Controller

  • Loss of heart-beat – Portal thread kills the sandboxed application

    • When is heart-beat lost ?

  • One Portal thread for each process

    • Terminate

    • Pause

    • Resume

  • On being paused, process memory paged to disk – security issues ?


Enforcing resource limits
Enforcing Resource Limits

  • If desktop usage is high, Desktop Controller pauses subjob (via Portal thread) – all or nothing solution

  • If pausing does not decrease usage, terminate – is this correct ?

  • Different levels of unobtrusiveness

    • Highest level – pause on mouse movement, keyboard-memory-disk I/O-CPU usage of non-Entropia processes – Background processes in Windows ? Distinction between user and system processes in Windows ?

    • Lowest level – ignore keyboard and mouse usage

      • Subjobs can run between keystrokes

    • Subjob threads are run at lowest priorities


Paging issues
Paging Issues

  • Subjob requirements

    • Specified by user

    • Specified by administrator (a typical value)

  • Resource Scheduler schedules subjob on a client with sufficient resources

  • Excessive Paging implications

    • Active user

    • Incorrect value of subjob requirement provided/estimated

  • Enforcing Resource Limitation

    • Pause/terminate subjob

    • Mentions excessive memory usage as well – is it correct ?

  • Examples

    • Tracing code – Excessive disk usage

    • Erroneous process – Excessive threads


Resource problems
Resource Problems

  • Failure reported to

    • Resource Scheduler

    • DCGrid Administrator

    • Job Manager

  • Categorization

    • Desktop Resource Contention

    • Client Black Hole

    • Malformed subjob


Sandbox execution layer
Sandbox Execution Layer

  • Goal

    • Control subjob’s interaction with OS

    • Virtualize some OS components

  • Subjob’s access to all important system APIs is mediated


Os interception layer
OS Interception Layer

  • Device Driver – intercepts hardware access

  • Binary modification – virtualize some APIs

  • Sandbox Layer is a VMM


Device driver mediation
Device Driver Mediation

  • Device Driver Mediation

    • Provides Desktop Security feature

    • Mediated interfaces cannot be bypassed

    • Global mediation overhead

      • Hence mediates only interfaces with resource access

  • Dynamic Binary Modification

    • Trampoline approach


Design decisions
Design Decisions

  • Self-modifying code not allowed

    • JIT code for JVM allowed

  • Virtualized components

    • Files

    • Registry

    • GUI

    • Network

    • Threads and Processes


Application security
Application Security

  • Desktop user does not have administrator privileges

  • Subjob runs in a separate user space

  • Device driver provides complete user-space isolation

  • File encryption

  • Tampering detection




Related work
Related Work

  • Existing desktop grid solutions

    • Require changes to code or well-behaved assumptions

  • Classic VMs

    • Obtrusive

  • JVM and .NET/MSIL based grids

    • Obtrusive, not comprehensive

  • VMs for desktop grids

    • Obtrusive, heavy

  • VMs with resource control

    • Assume closed system


Conclusion
Conclusion

  • EVM provides

    • Desktop security

    • Clean execution environment

    • Unobtrusiveness

    • Application security



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