Six factors leading to confederation
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SIX FACTORS LEADING TO CONFEDERATION. SIX FACTORS. War and Expansionism Fenian Raids Trouble with trade Need for rail links Changing British attitudes Political Deadlock. WAR AND EXPANSIONISM. 1. American Civil War Northern states thought Britain would support/supported the South

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SIX FACTORS LEADING TO CONFEDERATION

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Six factors leading to confederation

SIX FACTORS LEADING TO CONFEDERATION


Six factors

SIX FACTORS

  • War and Expansionism

  • Fenian Raids

  • Trouble with trade

  • Need for rail links

  • Changing British attitudes

  • Political Deadlock


War and expansionism

WAR AND EXPANSIONISM

1. American Civil War

  • Northern states thought Britain would support/supported the South

    2. Lands to the West

  • British North Americans and Americans eyeing the same land

    3. Manifest Destiny:

  • American belief that the continent should belong to the USA


War and expansionism1

WAR AND EXPANSIONISM

Question: How did this lead to Confederation?

Answer: a unified British North America could better defend itself against invasion from the USA if they chose to attack


Fenian raids

FENIAN RAIDS

  • After the Civil War, Fenians sought to force Ireland’s independence from Britain by attacking Canada

  • Between 1866 and 1871, they raided territory from NB to MB

  • During the largest raid, the Fenians defeated a small Canadian force but returned to the United States before Canadian and British reinforcements arrived


Fenian raids1

FENIAN RAIDS

Question: How did this lead to Confederation?

Answer: as above, a unified British North Americacould better defend itself against the raids


Trouble with trade

TROUBLE WITH TRADE

  • The colonies had stronger trade links with the United States than with each other under the Reciprocity Treaty

  • The treaty allowed products to be sold across the border without high tariffs being paid

  • In 1865, the US ended the Reciprocity Treaty forcing people in the colonies of BNA to think of joining together so they could trade among themselves tariff-free


Trouble with trade1

TROUBLE WITH TRADE

Question: How did this lead to Confederation?

Answer: British North Americans hoped that a unified country would result in free trade amongst the provinces, increasing prosperity


Need for rail links

NEED FOR RAIL LINKS

  • There were a number of obstacles separating the United Province of Canada from the Atlantic Colonies… this led to calls for a railway linking the colonies

  • Advantages of an inter-colonial railway:

  • more trade between colonies

  • increased expansion into the west

  • troops could be mobilized more easily if they were invaded by the United States


Need for rail links1

NEED FOR RAIL LINKS

Question: How did this lead to Confederation?

Answer: construction of a railway linking the colonies was used to convince leaders to support Confederation


Changing british attitudes

CHANGING BRITISH ATTITUDES

  • Public opinion in Great Britain was divided over whether to keep colonies

  • Arguments in favour of keeping the colonies included source of raw materials, market for British goods, source for soldiers, etc.

  • However, voices of those who argued against keeping the colonies were louder as they argued that the colonies were a burden on British taxpayers


Changing british attitudes1

CHANGING BRITISH ATTITUDES

Question: How did this lead to Confederation?

Answer: Little Englanders and others urged Britain to give up colonies which led people in BNA to consider their future without Britain, but only with consent


Political deadlock

POLITICAL DEADLOCK

  • Canada West and Canada East had same number of seats after Durham’s Report

  • Canada West: Sir John A. Macdonald (Tories) and George Brown (Clear Grits)

  • Canada East: George-Étienne Cartier (Parti Bleu) and A. A. Dorion (Parti Rouge)

  • The political deadlock resulted from equal representation… all of the government votes ended in “ties”


Political deadlock1

POLITICAL DEADLOCK

Question: How did this lead to Confederation?

Answer: Great Coalition (1864) saw three biggest parties and personalities join together to break deadlock and move the colonies towards Confederation


Fathers of confederation

FATHERS OF CONFEDERATION


Dominion of canada

DOMINION OF CANADA


British north america act

BRITISH NORTH AMERICA ACT


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