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Indonesia

Government/History 354

Campbell University


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Location of Indonesia


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18,108 volcanic islands

Land of spice islands

203-245 Million Population.

4th largest population in world.

88% Sunni Muslim

Largest Muslim population on earth.

Was a Dutch colony.

Is an oil producer.

Maritime choke point.

Introduction


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Early Kingdoms-Srivijaya

  • Srivijaya controlled the Malay Archipelago from 7th thru 13th Century.

    • Controlled Straits of Malacca and Sunda plus Isthmus of Kra with a powerful fleet.

    • Capital at Palembang, a center of Buddhist learning.

    • Benefited from collapse of Funan and surge in Chinese trade during the Tang dynasty.

    • Conquered briefly by Rajendra Chola in 1025.


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Early Kingdoms- Sailendras

  • The Sailendras controlled central Java during 8th & 9th Century.

    • Royal family was Funanese who had been deposed by Chenla.

    • Returned to conquer & rule southern Chenla until defeated by Jayavarman II of Angkor in 802.

    • Built Borobodur (778-824), the greatest Buddhist monument in S. E. Asia.


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Patapan, a Sanjaya prince, usurped the Sailendra throne in 832. The capital was moved to Mataram in 929.

Mataram emulated Sailandra except in religion. A Hindu resurgence led to the construction of the Prambanan complex.

Continued prosperous trade with China & Arabs.

Early Kingdoms - Mataram


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Early Kingdoms – Kediri & Singhasari

  • Mataram challenge Srivijaya’s dominance in 1006, but was decisively defeated.

  • Rajendra Chola’s warfare with & defeat of Srivijaya in 1026 allowed Airlangga, a Balinese prince, to restore Mataram’s political power.

  • Airlangga divided his kingdom between his two sons in 1042. The two kingdoms were Janggala and Kediri. Kediri was dominant and flourished in trade with India and the Mediterranean during early 13th Century.

  • Ken Angrok conquered Janggala and then Kediri to establish the Singhasari 1222. Under King Kertanagara, Singhasari dominated both the Malacca & Sunda Straits until the Mongol invasion in 1292.


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Early Kingdoms - Majapahit

  • Kertanagara was killed by a dissident vassal in the face of Kublai Khan’s threatened invasion. His heir, Vijaya, fled to Majapahit. In a twist of fate, the Mongols assisted him in overthrowing the usurper.

  • The Majapahit prime minister, Gaja Mada (1331-1364), then united all of the archipelago for 75 years..

  • Majapahit dominance ended with the spread of Islam to Malacca in 1402.

  • Majapahit was the last great Hindu kingdom in S.E. Asia.


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Summary of Kingdoms

  • Srivijaya, 7-13th Century, Java, Sumatra & Malay Peninsula.

  • Sailendras, 8 – 9th Century, Central Java.

  • Mataram, 832 – 1042, Central Java.

  • Janggala, 1042 – 1222, Central Java.

  • Kediri, 1042 – 1222, Central Java.

  • Singhasari, 1222 – 1292, Java, Sumatra & Straits.

  • Majapahit, 1292 – 1402, The Whole Thing.


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Questions

  • On which island does the bulk of the Indonesian population reside?

  • Near what major city is Borobodur located? What religion does it celebrate?

  • What areas did Srivijaya control?

  • What is the significance of the Isthmus of Kra?

  • Where was Funan?

  • What empire built the Prambanan complex? What religion does it celebrate?

  • From what kingdom did Singhasari evolve?


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More Questions

  • What country claims the largest Islamic population in the world?

  • What was the last great Hindu kingdom in Indonesia?

  • How did the Mongols help Vijaya regain the throne of Majapahit?


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The Dutch in Indonesia

  • Both the Dutch VOC (Vereenigde Oostandische Compagnie) (1602) and English East India Company (1600) were interested in S.E.Asian trade.

  • Conflict led to the Ambon Massacre in 1623 and the withdrawal of the East India Company from the archipelago.

  • The Dutch gradually gained control of the entire archipelago: Ambon – 1605, Malacca – 1641, Aceh – 1667, Macassar –1669, Banten - 1682.

  • The objective was trade: Indian cottons for spices.


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Colonization of Indonesia

  • The Dutch avoided direct administration until the mid 18th Century. Control was exercised thru local rulers who were also doubled as principal traders

  • The system of leveringen began at end the the 17th Century. Fixed amounts at fixed prices.

  • Direct administration of areas growing coffee, sugar, indigo and spices began in the 18th Century.


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Colonization of Indonesia

  • The Dutch employed their navy to enforce a monopoly on trade with Europe.

  • There was no effort to impact religion, culture or education.

  • Dutch trade practices did have the unintentional consequence of displacing the indigenous carriage & distribution trade. One result was the rise of the Bugis pirates.


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Hermann Daendels

  • Herman Daendels was appointed Gov-Gen of Indonesia by Napoleon from 1808-11 to improve defenses against the British and improve administration. He

    • Centralized administration.

    • Reduced graft and corruption.

    • Established adat courts.

  • Increased compulsory coffee production and established a monopoly on rice to raise funds.


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Thomas Stamford Raffles

  • Gov-Gen Minto (India) led an invasion of Java in 1811 and left Stamford Raffles in charge. He introduced major reforms.

    • Permitted land ownership with tax rate based on fertility.

    • Peasants could cultivate and sell crops of their choice, except coffee.

    • Created an elaborate court system with jury trials.

  • Dutch returned in 1816.


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Questions

  • Describe the Ambon (Amboyna) Massacre. What was its significance?

  • What was the leveringen system?

  • Why did the Dutch seek a monopoly?

  • Were the Dutch interested in spreading Christianity?

  • Who were the Bugis pirates?

  • What were adat courts?

  • The Napoleonic Wars led to two men being appointed governors of Java. Who were they? Which one “discovered” Borobodur?


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Role of the Regent

  • The Regent was the native VOC agent contracted to deliver export crops. He was subordinated to a governor-general, regional governor & resident/comptroller. In turn, he appointed and supervised village chiefs who he was responsible to pay from the taxes he collected.

  • His role grew to include governmental and religious aspects, usurping the role of local princes. Eventually, the position was considered hereditary.

  • Daendels and Raffles sought to reduce his powers to protect the natives. Raffles land rent system virtually eliminated him.

  • The Java War demonstrated the need for his support.


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Java War (1825-1830)

  • Also called the Dipo Negoro Revolt.

  • Led to the death of 200,000; 8,000 were Dutch.

  • Dipo Negoro was a prince, but as the son of a lesser wife not eligible to inherit the Sultanate of Yogyakarta. Rejected by Raffles as his father’s successor, he became an Islamic mystic. When tombs were disturbed by road construction, he led a revolt as a messianic ratu adil.

  • Controlled middle Java and Yogyakarta until defeated in 1825. Then led a guerrilla war until 1827. Captured in 1830. The war cost the Dutch 30 million guilders.


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The Culture System

  • The system was implemented from 1830 to 1877 to raise funds to cover the cost of the Java War, Napoleonic Wars and Belgium Civil war.

  • It was the brain child of Baron Johannes Van Den Bosch, Gov-Gen of Java.

  • In theory, it required villages to grow export crops to raise sufficient funds to cover their land taxes. These would be sold to the government at a fixed price for transportation to Amsterdam. The system provided 19-32% of the state’s revenue.


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Max Havelaar

  • Max Havelaar or The Coffee Auctions of the Dutch Trading Company written by Eduard Douwes Dekker & published in 1860.

  • Portrayed the Culture System as organized forced labor. Increased prices led to increased taxes & taxes were collected on commission.

  • By 1840, rice shortages, famines , epidemics and dislocation all began to appear. Saijah & Adinda.

  • Reforms led to the system being dismantled government monopolies abolished starting in 1860. Coffee remained a monopoly until 1917.


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Other Reforms

  • Baron Van Hoevell, a former preacher in Java, led a reform movement in the Dutch States General:

    • 1848 – The legislature would have a say in colonial government.

    • 1854 – Passed a “colonial constitution” for abolition of culture system.

    • 1870 - Passed the Agrarian Act allowing the leasing of land and development of free trade.


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The Ethical Policy

  • The Ethical Policy of 1901:

    • A policy of “ethical obligation and moral responsibility to the people of the East Indies.”

    • Can be summarized as “education, irrigation and emigration.”

    • Included Western education for elites, agricultural extension to open new areas and improve crops, resettlement from Java to Sumatra, improved infrastructure, encouragement of economic development and Christian missionaries.


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Nationalist Movements

  • Many consider the Java War as a first expression of nationalism.

  • Education of the priyayi and santri under the Ethical Policy produced a new elite and a sense of national identity.

  • Organizations which promoted nationalism:

    • 1902 - Kartini Schools - 1908 - Boedi Utomo

    • 1912 –Sareket Islam - 1920 – PKI

    • 1927 - PNI


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Questions

  • What was Dipo Negoro’s complaint? What’s a ratu adil?

  • Who was Johannes Van Den Bosch?

  • What was the underlying assumption of the Culture System regarding the indigenous population?

  • How did Max Havelaar portray the Culture System? What happened to Saija and Adinda?

  • Who led the colonial reform movement in the Dutch States General?

  • What was the Ethical Policy?

  • What action on the part of the colonial administration led to the beginning of nationalism?

  • What is the historical event that many Indonesians consider to be the first act of nationalism?


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World War II

  • The Dutch promise a conference on self-government before they leave in 1941.

  • Sukarno, Mohammed Hatta and Sutan Sjahrir released from jail by the Japanese when they occupied Indonesia in 1942.

  • Sukarno, Hatta and others formed Putera as a double edge puppet government.


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Indonesian Revolution

  • Sukarno announced the Five Postulates and declared independence in 1945.The Dutch had not yet returned.

    • Nationalism (National unity)

    • Internationalism (One sovereign nation among equals)

    • Representative Democracy (All significant groups represented)

    • Social Justice ( A Marxist view)

    • Belief in God (A secular state, not Islamic)


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Struggle for Independence

  • The Netherlands asked Britain to reoccupy Indonesia on its behalf.

  • The initial British force attempted to occupy Surabaya on November 10, 1945. The result was a bloody one-month long battle.

  • Negotiations with Dutch led to Linggadjati Agreement in 1947 creating the United States of Indonesia under Dutch sovereignty. The USI was to be part of a larger Netherlands-Indonesian-Surinam-Curacao Union.


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Sovereignty At Last

  • The Indonesians were not satisfied with the lack of sovereignty. A guerrilla war ensued during which 6,000 Dutch and 150,000 Indonesians were killed during 1947-49.

    • A cease fire was imposed by the U.N. in 1947.

    • An Asian Conference hosted by India imposed sanctions against the Dutch in 1949.

    • Sovereignty was finally transferred by the Dutch in December, 1949.


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Coping with Independence

  • Indonesia found it extremely difficult to create and operate a viable government..

    • Elections only yielded pluralities and weak, short-lived coalition governments.

    • The economy was in decline and inflation rampant. The country was bankrupt.

    • Fear of nationalization of assets prevented significant foreign investment.


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Guided Democracy

  • In 1957 Sukarno established guided democracy to “save” the country.

    • A national advisory council was established composed of representative groups, e.g., peasants, workers, the military.

    • A “cooperating parliament” was established in place of the elected parliament. Opinion could be expressed but votes were not taken. The goal was to govern by deliberation and consensus.


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Foreign Policy

  • Sukarno sought a leading role for Indonesia as a non-aligned nation.

    • 1954 – Meeting of the Colombo Powers at Bogor. Obtained support for claims to West Irian.

    • 1954 – Hosted the 29 nation Asian-African conference at Bandung of newly freed peoples.

    • 1962 – Indonesia sought to invade West Irian (Dutch New Guinea) after negotiating with the Dutch since 1949. West Irian was transferred to Indonesia in 1963 with help of the U.N. and U.S. diplomat Ellsworth Bunker.


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Foreign Policy Cont’d

  • 1963 - 65 - Crush Malaysia Campaign launched by Sukarno over the formation of the Federation of Malaysia. Felt that the linking of Sarawak, Brunei and Sabah to Malaya would threaten Kalimantan.

  • The Crush Malaysia Campaign was part of Konfrontasia, the confronting of the remnants of colonialism. It involved NEFOS vs. the OLDEFOS

  • Received $ 2 Billion in aid from the USSR in 1965. Nevertheless, Sukarno was drawn thru the influence of PKI to align with China.


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Questions

  • How did Sukarno and his cohorts react to the Japanese invasion?

  • What is particularly significant about Pancasila?

  • What part of Indonesia did the British seek to occupy on behalf of the Dutch at the end of WWII?

  • The Dutch sought to avoid surrendering their position in Indonesia by creating the _______________.

  • What was the Japanese legacy to Indonesia?

  • Why did the U.S. support the French return to Indochina but not the Dutch in Indonesia?

  • Why did Sukarno establish Guided Democracy?

  • What was Konfrontasi?


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The Gestapu Affair

  • On the night of September 30, 1965, six leading generals and one lieutenant were assassinated in an attempted coup.

    • General Nasution escaped the assassination and Major General Suharto was not targeted.

    • The reaction was a massacre of a half million Communist and Chinese, a combination pogrom and Jihad.

    • Sukarno had no advanced knowledge of the coup but his powers were curbed. He was removed as president in 1967 and died in 1970.


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Suharto’s New Order

  • March 11, 1966 – Sukarno signed the Supersemar decree authorizing Suharto to take all measures necessary ... This was the beginning of the New Order.

    • Revived the parliament of 1955.

    • Adam Malik renegotiated debt of $1.7 million.

    • Ended Confrontation Policy.

    • Joined ASEAN

    • Befriended the West and Japan.

    • Held national elections in 1971.


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New Order Problems

  • Sekber Golkar (the government party) lost creditability in the early ’70s.

  • Legitimized “Dual Function.”

  • Graft, cronyism and corruption were extremely wide spread. Examples:

    • Astra Toyota & Tommy

    • Pertamina lost $10.5 billion.


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The Downfall of Suharto

  • The 1997-98 crises led to Indonesian currency losing 70% of its value. The IMF bailout required strict austerity measures leading to further economic hardship and inflation.

  • Sukarno ran unopposed for president for the seventh time. Sparked by the killing of six student demonstrators, Jakarta was seized by demonstrations and riots.

  • The army took over Jakarta and Sukarno resigned after 32 years as president and $15 billion in graft.


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B. J. Habbie

  • As V.P., Habbie assumed the presidency. Many were highly skeptical.

  • Trained as an engineer in Germany. Founded an aircraft company in Bandung. Championed industrial vs. agricultural development.

  • Allowed East Timor referendum leading to that country’s independence.


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Abdurrahman Wahid

  • Elected in 1999. Was a nearly blind Muslim cleric. Had suffered recurring strokes. Proved to be indecisive and incapable of running the country.

  • Did not effectively cope with the separatist demands of Aceh and Irian Jaya.

  • Was impeached in 2001.


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Questions

  • Who was responsible for the Gestapu Affair?

  • Who signed the Supersemar Decree?

  • What was Suharto’s vision of a New Order?

  • What was significant about Sekber Golkar?

  • Describe Dual Function.

  • What caused Suharto’s downfall?

  • Why was there skepticism about Habbie succeeding Suharto?

  • Why was Wahid chosen to be president instead of Megawati Sukarnoputri in 1999?


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Separatist Movements

  • There have been three major separatist movements: Aceh, Iran Jaya (West Papua) and East Timor.


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East Timor

  • East Timor declared its independence in 1975 after a change in the government of Portugal. Indonesia invaded four days later.

  • Timor had been a Portuguese colony since 1702, as such its population is 90% Catholic. The Netherlands annexed West Timor in 1859. It is largely Islamic.

  • Indonesia invaded East Timor because it feared FRETILIN (the independence party) was in league with China and would turn the country Communist.

  • FRETILIN fought a successful guerrilla war from 1975 to 1999. Total deaths from all causes = 200,000 +/-.

  • East Timor became fully independent in 2002.


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Aceh

  • Was independent prior to colonial rule, even controlling part of the Malay Peninsula (Kedah).

  • Indonesia granted Aceh special autonomy status in 1959. The Aceh freedom movement began in 1976 led by GAM. Warfare led to 5,000 deaths by 2000.

  • In 1999, President Wahid assured GAM that all of its demands short of total independence would be met. Granted 75% of all oil and gas revenue plus Sharia law and own flag in 2001. GAM continued to demand total independence until 2005 peace.


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Western New Guinea

  • The Dutch sought to retain in a commonwealth.

  • In 1961, Indonesia mounted an invasion after West Papua declared independence.

  • In 1962, agreement was reached to transfer the territory to Indonesia. An “Act of Free Choice” was required. The poll was taken in 1969.

  • President Wahid granted special autonomy in 2000. In 2001, it was split into two provinces. The freedom movement wanted a share of the income from the rich gas, oil, copper & gold resources.


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Megawati Sukarnoputri

  • Indonesia’s first woman president. Succeeded Wahid in 2001 as his V.P.

  • Formed her own political party to win election when banned from the PDI. She formed PDI-P.

  • Considered herself the “good Queen.” Was called “Mother Mega.”

  • Presided over a 3-year transition to civilian rule.


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Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono

  • Elected president in 2004 in Indonesia’s first direct presidential election. Called “SBY.”

  • Top graduate of Indonesian military academy, U.S. Infantry Advanced Course and Command and the General Staff College.

  • Labeled “the thinking general.” Took leading role against terrorism.

Retired as a 4 star in 2000.


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Questions

  • What precipitated the Indonesian invasion of East Timor in 1975?

  • What were GAM’s demands for Aceh?

  • What led to the Indonesian invasion of West Papua in 1961?

  • What did the Papuan Freedom Movement want?

  • To what great Indonesian figure is Magawati Sukarnoputri related?

  • Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (SBY) has the distinction of being the first president of Indonesia to be elected by________.


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Institutions and Social Groups

  • Constitution.

    • The constitution is a hybrid: “presidential with parliamentary characteristics.” Government is unitary.

      • Executive power is held by the legislature in that it can subject the president to votes of confidence.

      • Until 2004, the legislature actually elected the president and V.P. They are now elected directly. Limited to two 5-year terms

      • In 2004, the House of Regional Representatives (DPD) was established as a separate legislative body. It is composed of four representatives from each of Indonesia’s 33 provinces.The House of Representatives (DPR) is still the premier legislative body. Composed of 550 seats, members are elected for 5-year terms.


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Institutions and Social Groups

  • Constitution (Continued)

    • The Peoples Consultative Assembly (MPR) is composed of the elected members of the DPR & DPD. Responsible to inaugurate and impeach president and amend the constitution.

    • The president is head of state, CINC of armed the forces, responsible for domestic governance and foreign affairs.

    • The president appoints a council of ministers. Members do not have to be elected members of the legislature. He also appoints provincial governors.


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Institutions and Social Groups

  • Military.

    • The military played both a security and sociopolitical role under Suharto, labeled “dual function.” Active duty military were members of the cabinet, provincial governors, members of the legislature and leaders of Golkar.

    • Since the election of SBY, the dual function concept has been down played. The goal is to eliminate it completely.


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Institutions and Social Groups

  • Bureaucracy

    • Indonesia is a bureaucratic polity in which power and decision making is limited to members of the bureaucracy, specifically the military, civil servants and technocrats. Economists serving in top technocrat positions are commonly called the “Berkley Mafia.”

    • Korpri was created in the 1970 to provide a new corps of civil servants, including provincial governors.

    • The 1997 economic downturn did lessen the awe in which technocrats were held.


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Institutions and Social Groups

  • Political Parties.

    • Until 1999, no party could compete with Golkar, the official government and military party. All government employees and the military were required to belong..

    • Sukarno banned all competing political parties except PDI and PPP. Smaller political parties were forced to become part of one or the other. PDI is the Indonesian Democratic Party; PPP is the Muslim Party.

    • Sukarno required that PDI and PPP espouse Pancasila only as their political philosophy and not depart from it.

    • All these restrictions were lifted in 1999.


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Institutions and Social Groups

  • Democratization.

    • The Sukarno period of Guided Democracy (1950-57) was followed by a return to the pre-1950 constitution under Suharto.

    • Suharto’s New Order relied heavily on military rule (Dual Function), but did achieve great economic progress and a “middle class.” Suharto saw himself as the “Development President.”

    • 1999 to 2001 saw the development of real democracy under Wahid and then Megawati Sukarnoputri.

    • SBY has pledged to completely eliminate “Dual Function.”


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Institutions and Social Groups

  • Economic Development.

    • Has averaged a 6% GNP growth since 1965, although per capita GNP is extremely low ($685.00).

    • The 1997 economic crises slowed the GNP, but it has returned to a projected 5.2% for 2006.

    • Natural resources include oil (aging fields and old equipment), natural gas (exports 20% of world’s LNG), tin, copper, and gold.

    • Agricultural exports include palm oil, rice, tea, coffee, spices and rubber.

    • Major industries include mining, petroleum, NG, textiles & apparel, labor intensive assembly.


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Institutions and Social Groups

  • Economic Problems,

    • Most manufacturing is sub-contract assembly and low tech such as footwear, canning, & wood processing.

    • Support by Chinese of Golkar led to preferential treatment by the government. Chinese businessmen, called cukong (boss), are resented for their power.

    • Primitive slash and burn farming on Kalimantan and Sumatra started forest fires that spread smoke over much of SEA in 1997.

    • Suharto family corruption and the national car – Timor.


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Institutions and Social Groups

  • Foreign Policy.

    • Sukarno sought security in anti-western nationalism: the NEFOSs against the OLDEFOSs. Konfrontasi against Malaysia was the result.

    • Suharto assumed a lower profile role in international affairs. Supported ASEAN and the Zone of Peace. East Timor was the exception. Played a role in attempting to resolve the Cambodia crises.

    • Relations with China have improved since the Gestapu Affair. Established diplomatic relations in 1990.

    • The West is still Indonesia’s primary market and source of investment and development assistance.


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Questions

  • Does Indonesia have a presidential or parliamentary system of government?

  • In 2004, a new national legislative body was established. What is it called?

  • Does Dual Function continue to exist.

  • What is Korpri?

  • How many political parties were allowed under Suharto? Name them.

  • What was Sukarno’s New Order?

  • How important are the Chinese to Indonesia’s economic development?


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More Questions

  • What was significant about Indonesia’s national car (the Timor)?

  • What two forces did Sukarno see confronting each other in Konfrontasi?

  • How has Indonesia related to the rest of Southeast Asia in recent years.


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The End


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