Islam. Islam as a religion Islam as an empire Spread of Islam as a universal religion IDs: hadith , sharia , Sufis, Abbasid Caliphate, 749-945. Argument.
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IDs: hadith, sharia, Sufis, Abbasid Caliphate, 749-945
Although the universal religions spread in similar ways, they had different relationships with empires. Christianity took over an empire (Rome); Buddhism spread in spite of an empire (Tang China); and Islam created an empire.
1. Quran (Koran, Qu’ran)
Written Down: 650
Traditions (stories & sayings)
Oral transmission: 632-850
Written down: 850-900
Persian Empire & southern part of Byzantine Empire
Tolerance for “People of the Book” (Jews & Christians)
Caliph – successor to the Prophet
Caliphate – Muslim/Islamic empire
Umayyad Caliphate (661-749)
Abbasid Caliphate (749-945)
After 900, lots of Muslim states in Islamic world.
Even after the Muslim world was no longer governed in one big caliphate, certain factors unified Muslims despite their different ethnic groups and states
support for merchants
The Muslim world was connected by a web of cities
Pilgrims, Sufis, and qadis (legal scholars) carried knowledge throughout Muslim world
622-732: by conquest & empire
732-onwards: by trade and missionary journeys
Gold-Salt Trade: Empires of Ghana, Mali & Songhay
712: Sind (n.w. India) by Arab-Persian Muslims
700-1000: Conversion of Turks from Central Asia to Islam
Turks conquer parts of North India