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Islam. Islam as a religion Islam as an empire Spread of Islam as a universal religion IDs: hadith , sharia , Sufis, Abbasid Caliphate, 749-945. Argument.

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  • Islam as a religion

  • Islam as an empire

  • Spread of Islam as a universal religion

    IDs: hadith, sharia, Sufis, Abbasid Caliphate, 749-945



Although the universal religions spread in similar ways, they had different relationships with empires. Christianity took over an empire (Rome); Buddhism spread in spite of an empire (Tang China); and Islam created an empire.

I islam as a religion

I. Islam as a Religion

  • Origin




B texts

B. Texts

1. Quran (Koran, Qu’ran)

Orally: 610-632

Written Down: 650

2 hadith

2. Hadith

Traditions (stories & sayings)

Oral transmission: 632-850

Written down: 850-900

C islam in theory practice

C. Islam in Theory & Practice

1. Theology

  • Five Pillars

  • Hajj

  • Ramadan

  • Mecca

2 law sharia

2. Law: Sharia

  • Quran

  • Hadith

  • Reasoning by analogy (jurists)

  • Consensus of community



3 mysticism sufis

3. Mysticism: Sufis





Ii islam as an empire

II. Islam as an Empire

A muslim arab conquests 622 733

A. Muslim Arab Conquests, 622-733


Persian Empire & southern part of Byzantine Empire

Policies towards conquered people

Policies towards Conquered people

Tolerance for “People of the Book” (Jews & Christians)

B political organization

B. Political Organization

Caliph – successor to the Prophet

Caliphate – Muslim/Islamic empire

Two caliphates

Two Caliphates

Umayyad Caliphate (661-749)

capital: Damascus


Abbasid Caliphate (749-945)

capital: Baghdad

Muslim (Persian)

Islam 3178750

After 900, lots of Muslim states in Islamic world.

D multiethnic empire

D. Multiethnic Empire




E factors promoting unity

E. Factors promoting Unity

Even after the Muslim world was no longer governed in one big caliphate, certain factors unified Muslims despite their different ethnic groups and states

Arabic language


support for merchants

Muslim rulers supported cities merchants education and technology

Muslim rulers supported cities, merchants, education and technology

The Muslim world was connected by a web of cities

Pilgrims, Sufis, and qadis (legal scholars) carried knowledge throughout Muslim world

Support for schools research

Support for Schools & Research

  • preserved & combined Greek, Persian & Indian knowledge

  • then built on it

Iii spread of islam

III. Spread of Islam

622-732: by conquest & empire

732-onwards: by trade and missionary journeys

Iii spread of islam1

III. Spread of Islam

  • Sub-Saharan Africa




    Swahili Coast

A trade religion islam in africa

A. Trade & Religion: Islam in Africa

Gold-Salt Trade: Empires of Ghana, Mali & Songhay

B islam in se asia

B. Islam in SE Asia

C islam in south asia conquest trade

C. Islam in South Asia: Conquest & Trade

712: Sind (n.w. India) by Arab-Persian Muslims

700-1000: Conversion of Turks from Central Asia to Islam

Turks conquer parts of North India

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