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Islam. Islam as a religion Islam as an empire Spread of Islam as a universal religion IDs: hadith , sharia , Sufis, Abbasid Caliphate, 749-945. Argument.

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Islam

Islam

  • Islam as a religion

  • Islam as an empire

  • Spread of Islam as a universal religion

    IDs: hadith, sharia, Sufis, Abbasid Caliphate, 749-945


Argument

Argument

Although the universal religions spread in similar ways, they had different relationships with empires. Christianity took over an empire (Rome); Buddhism spread in spite of an empire (Tang China); and Islam created an empire.


I islam as a religion

I. Islam as a Religion

  • Origin

    Allah

    Muhammad

    Prophet


B texts

B. Texts

1. Quran (Koran, Qu’ran)

Orally: 610-632

Written Down: 650


2 hadith

2. Hadith

Traditions (stories & sayings)

Oral transmission: 632-850

Written down: 850-900


C islam in theory practice

C. Islam in Theory & Practice

1. Theology

  • Five Pillars

  • Hajj

  • Ramadan

  • Mecca


2 law sharia

2. Law: Sharia

  • Quran

  • Hadith

  • Reasoning by analogy (jurists)

  • Consensus of community

    Qadis

    Ulama


3 mysticism sufis

3. Mysticism: Sufis

Meditation

Poetry

Music

dance


Ii islam as an empire

II. Islam as an Empire


A muslim arab conquests 622 733

A. Muslim Arab Conquests, 622-733

Conquered

Persian Empire & southern part of Byzantine Empire


Policies towards conquered people

Policies towards Conquered people

Tolerance for “People of the Book” (Jews & Christians)


B political organization

B. Political Organization

Caliph – successor to the Prophet

Caliphate – Muslim/Islamic empire


Two caliphates

Two Caliphates

Umayyad Caliphate (661-749)

capital: Damascus

Arab

Abbasid Caliphate (749-945)

capital: Baghdad

Muslim (Persian)


Islam 3178750

After 900, lots of Muslim states in Islamic world.


D multiethnic empire

D. Multiethnic Empire

Arab

Persian

Turk


E factors promoting unity

E. Factors promoting Unity

Even after the Muslim world was no longer governed in one big caliphate, certain factors unified Muslims despite their different ethnic groups and states

Arabic language

hajj

support for merchants


Muslim rulers supported cities merchants education and technology

Muslim rulers supported cities, merchants, education and technology

The Muslim world was connected by a web of cities

Pilgrims, Sufis, and qadis (legal scholars) carried knowledge throughout Muslim world


Support for schools research

Support for Schools & Research

  • preserved & combined Greek, Persian & Indian knowledge

  • then built on it


Iii spread of islam

III. Spread of Islam

622-732: by conquest & empire

732-onwards: by trade and missionary journeys


Iii spread of islam1

III. Spread of Islam

  • Sub-Saharan Africa

    Merchants

    Ghana

    Mali

    Swahili Coast


A trade religion islam in africa

A. Trade & Religion: Islam in Africa

Gold-Salt Trade: Empires of Ghana, Mali & Songhay


B islam in se asia

B. Islam in SE Asia


C islam in south asia conquest trade

C. Islam in South Asia: Conquest & Trade

712: Sind (n.w. India) by Arab-Persian Muslims

700-1000: Conversion of Turks from Central Asia to Islam

Turks conquer parts of North India


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