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Lecture #2 Research Methods. Music: “Forever” Chris Brown “ Dangerous ” Akon. Today’s Agenda.

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lecture 2 research methods

Lecture #2 Research Methods

Music:“Forever”Chris Brown “Dangerous”Akon

today s agenda
Today’s Agenda
  • 1. Theoretical Perspectives in Psychology (p.11)
    • Application to the phenomenon of depression
  • 2. Research Methods (Ch. 2):
    • a) Descriptive/correlational
    • b) Experimental
  • 3. Improving Academic Performance (Ch. 1)
    • a) Time management
    • b) Study skills
  • 4. Quiz Questions
1 theoretical perspectives 6
1. Theoretical Perspectives (6)
  • 1) Biological:
    • How physiology affects thoughts and behavior
  • 2) Cognitive:
    • How your mind (thoughts) influence behavior
  • 3) Psychodynamic:
    • How the unconscious influences behavior
  • 4) Behavioral:
    • How the environment shapes behavior
  • 5) Humanistic:
    • Freedom of choice and actualization of the self as determinants of behavior
1 theoretical perspectives cont d
1. Theoretical Perspectives (cont’d)
  • 6) Evolutionary:
    • How the behavior initially solved an adaptive problem and increased chance of reproductive success
1 application to depression
1. Application to Depression
  • 1) Biological Vulnerability:
    • Genetic vulnerability
    • Neurochemical imbalance in the brain
  • 2) Cognitive Vulnerability:
    • Self-blame (attribution bias)
    • Dysfunctional beliefs
  • 3) Psychodynamic View:
    • Overly harsh superego
    • Unresolved grief over early loss
    • Anger turned inward
theoretical perspectives on depression cont d
Theoretical Perspectives on Depression (cont’d)
  • 4) Humanistic View:
    • Loss of meaning and purpose
    • Failure to actualize yourself
  • 5) Behavioral View:
    • Lowered social support
    • Loss of rewards
  • 6) Evolutionary View:
    • Disengagement is adaptive and promotes survival (e.g. prevents pursuit of unrealistic goals)
2 research methods a descriptive designs
2. Research Methods a) Descriptive Designs
  • Case studies:
      • Good for rare phenomena, or when other methods can’t be used
  • Surveys
    • Validity issues:
      • Wording (e.g. public poll)
      • sampling biases (e.g. Hite report)
      • social desirability (e.g. beer consumption)
  • Correlational (r)
    • Describes the strength of the relationship between 2 variables (r= -1.0 to +1.0)
    • Correlations enable prediction but say nothing about causation
2 a correlations
2.a) Correlations
  • Third variable can account for a relationship
2 b experimental studies
2. b) Experimental Studies
  • Most powerful method to detect cause and effect relationships
  • Independent Variable (“X”):
    • What is manipulated; the “cause” or explanation for something
  • Dependent Variable (“Y”)
    • The outcome (the something) affected by the manipulation
    • How does “X” affect “Y”?
  • Control Group:
    • No manipulation, otherwise treated the same.
    • Differences between control and experimental groups allow conclusions about the effect of “X” on “Y.”
3 improving your academic performance
3. Improving Your Academic Performance
  • a) Time Management Skills:
    • Written schedule with study blocks
    • Prioritize your goals
      • Break down difficult tasks into small steps
      • Do the hardest task during your “best time”
    • Note: Distributed learning is more effective than massed learning
    • Reward Yourself!
      • After, not before 
  • b) Study Skills
    • Study Area:
      • “Stimulus-response” theory
      • Combat distractions!
3 b study skills cont d
3. b) Study Skills (cont’d)
  • Reading:
    • SQ3R method:
    • Survey
    • Question
    • Read
    • Recite
    • Review
  • Summary: For success in university:
    • 1) Attend your lectures
    • 2) Take good notes
    • 3) Keep up with weekly readings
      • Time management & SQ3R
4 quiz questions breathe in and out
4. Quiz Questions: (breathe in…. and out….)
  • Consider the following research methods:
    • A) experimental study
    • B) case study
    • C) naturalistic observation
    • D) survey
    • E) correlational study
  • What would be the most appropriate research method for the following hypotheses:
    • 1) Smoking is associated with reduced life expectancy
    • 2) Tranquilizers are prescribed more in times of economic crisis
    • 3) The repression of anger leads to depression
    • 4) Children in orphanages have lower IQ
4 quiz questions cont d
4. Quiz Questions (cont’d)
  • 2) Which correlation coefficient would reflect the strongest relationship between 2 variables?
    • a) .20
    • b) .45
    • c) -.60
    • d) -.75
    • e) can’t tell based on the numerical value
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