Lecture 2 research methods
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Lecture #2 Research Methods. Music: “Forever” Chris Brown “ Dangerous ” Akon. Today’s Agenda.

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Lecture #2 Research Methods

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Lecture 2 research methods

Lecture #2 Research Methods

Music:“Forever”Chris Brown “Dangerous”Akon


Today s agenda

Today’s Agenda

  • 1. Theoretical Perspectives in Psychology (p.11)

    • Application to the phenomenon of depression

  • 2. Research Methods (Ch. 2):

    • a) Descriptive/correlational

    • b) Experimental

  • 3. Improving Academic Performance (Ch. 1)

    • a) Time management

    • b) Study skills

  • 4. Quiz Questions


1 theoretical perspectives 6

1. Theoretical Perspectives (6)

  • 1) Biological:

    • How physiology affects thoughts and behavior

  • 2) Cognitive:

    • How your mind (thoughts) influence behavior

  • 3) Psychodynamic:

    • How the unconscious influences behavior

  • 4) Behavioral:

    • How the environment shapes behavior

  • 5) Humanistic:

    • Freedom of choice and actualization of the self as determinants of behavior


1 theoretical perspectives cont d

1. Theoretical Perspectives (cont’d)

  • 6) Evolutionary:

    • How the behavior initially solved an adaptive problem and increased chance of reproductive success


1 application to depression

1. Application to Depression

  • 1) Biological Vulnerability:

    • Genetic vulnerability

    • Neurochemical imbalance in the brain

  • 2) Cognitive Vulnerability:

    • Self-blame (attribution bias)

    • Dysfunctional beliefs

  • 3) Psychodynamic View:

    • Overly harsh superego

    • Unresolved grief over early loss

    • Anger turned inward


Theoretical perspectives on depression cont d

Theoretical Perspectives on Depression (cont’d)

  • 4) Humanistic View:

    • Loss of meaning and purpose

    • Failure to actualize yourself

  • 5) Behavioral View:

    • Lowered social support

    • Loss of rewards

  • 6) Evolutionary View:

    • Disengagement is adaptive and promotes survival (e.g. prevents pursuit of unrealistic goals)


2 research methods a descriptive designs

2. Research Methods a) Descriptive Designs

  • Case studies:

    • Good for rare phenomena, or when other methods can’t be used

  • Surveys

    • Validity issues:

      • Wording (e.g. public poll)

      • sampling biases (e.g. Hite report)

      • social desirability (e.g. beer consumption)

  • Correlational (r)

    • Describes the strength of the relationship between 2 variables (r= -1.0 to +1.0)

    • Correlations enable prediction but say nothing about causation


  • 2 a correlational data

    2. a) Correlational data


    2 a correlations

    2.a) Correlations

    • Third variable can account for a relationship


    2 b experimental studies

    2. b) Experimental Studies

    • Most powerful method to detect cause and effect relationships

    • Independent Variable (“X”):

      • What is manipulated; the “cause” or explanation for something

    • Dependent Variable (“Y”)

      • The outcome (the something) affected by the manipulation

      • How does “X” affect “Y”?

    • Control Group:

      • No manipulation, otherwise treated the same.

      • Differences between control and experimental groups allow conclusions about the effect of “X” on “Y.”


    2 b experimental example

    2. b) Experimental example


    3 improving your academic performance

    3. Improving Your Academic Performance

    • a) Time Management Skills:

      • Written schedule with study blocks

      • Prioritize your goals

        • Break down difficult tasks into small steps

        • Do the hardest task during your “best time”

      • Note: Distributed learning is more effective than massed learning

      • Reward Yourself!

        • After, not before 

    • b) Study Skills

      • Study Area:

        • “Stimulus-response” theory

        • Combat distractions!


    3 b study skills cont d

    3. b) Study Skills (cont’d)

    • Reading:

      • SQ3R method:

      • Survey

      • Question

      • Read

      • Recite

      • Review

    • Summary: For success in university:

      • 1) Attend your lectures

      • 2) Take good notes

      • 3) Keep up with weekly readings

        • Time management & SQ3R


    4 quiz questions breathe in and out

    4. Quiz Questions: (breathe in…. and out….)

    • Consider the following research methods:

      • A) experimental study

      • B) case study

      • C) naturalistic observation

      • D) survey

      • E) correlational study

    • What would be the most appropriate research method for the following hypotheses:

      • 1) Smoking is associated with reduced life expectancy

      • 2) Tranquilizers are prescribed more in times of economic crisis

      • 3) The repression of anger leads to depression

      • 4) Children in orphanages have lower IQ


    4 quiz questions cont d

    4. Quiz Questions (cont’d)

    • 2) Which correlation coefficient would reflect the strongest relationship between 2 variables?

      • a) .20

      • b) .45

      • c) -.60

      • d) -.75

      • e) can’t tell based on the numerical value


    See you next week

    See you next week!

    Study Hard!


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