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Hazard Control. IENG 331, Safety Engineering Fall 2009. Assignment. Read Chapter 9 from Brauer Text Do the odd numbered Review Questions P. 109 Due: ?. Hazards. IDENTIFICATION (RECOGNITION) EVALUATION CONTROL Hazards must be attacked in this order .

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Hazard control

Hazard Control

IENG 331, Safety Engineering

Fall 2009


Assignment
Assignment

  • Read Chapter 9 from Brauer Text

  • Do the odd numbered Review Questions

    • P. 109

    • Due: ?


Hazards
Hazards

  • IDENTIFICATION (RECOGNITION)

  • EVALUATION

  • CONTROL

    Hazards must be attacked in this order


Murphy s law whatever possibly can go wrong will
Murphy’s Law: “Whatever Possibly Can Go Wrong, Will”

  • In spite of one’s best efforts to prevent undesirable events, errors, and misunderstandings, accidents will occur.

  • Attributed to Captain Ed Murphy

    • Air Force Engineer, 1949

    • Conducted crash tests

    • Found a strain gage bridge wired incorrectly

    • “If there is any way the technician can do it wrong, he will”

    • His team then adopted this law as a challenge and achieved an excellent safety record

    • Murphy’s Law has become a commonly used expression


Safety engineering corollaries of murphy s law block murphy s law 1980
Safety Engineering Corollaries of Murphy’s Law (Block, Murphy’s Law . . ., 1980)

  • A car and truck approaching each other on an otherwise deserted road will meet at the narrow bridge

  • Hindsight is an exact science

  • Only God can make a random selection

  • When all else fails, read the directions

  • Any system that depends on human reliability is unreliable

  • If a test installation functions perfectly, all subsequent systems will malfunction

  • In any calculation, any error which can creep in will do so. Any error in any calculation will be in the direction of most harm.

  • A fail-safe circuit will destroy others

  • A failure will not appear until a unit has passed final inspection


Murphy s law as a safety concept
Murphy’s Law as a Safety Concept Murphy’s Law . . ., 1980)

  • Our goal in Safety Engineering is to prevent fulfillment of Murphy’s Law

  • Through planning, design, and analysis, factors that contribute to accidents can be eliminated or reduced

  • Even though Murphy’s Law sounds pessimistic, it is a motivating safety concept


What is a hazard
What is a Hazard? Murphy’s Law . . ., 1980)

  • A condition or changing set of circumstances that presents a potential for injury, illness, or property damage


What is hazard control
What is Hazard Control? Murphy’s Law . . ., 1980)

  • Any means of eliminating or reducing the risk resulting from a hazard


Hazard sources
Hazard Sources Murphy’s Law . . ., 1980)

  • Planning & Design

  • Production & Distribution

  • Maintenance & Repair

  • Communication


Hazard sources planning design
Hazard Sources – Murphy’s Law . . ., 1980)Planning & Design

  • Usually inadvertently, unknowingly, or unintentionally, engineers or planners may create hazards in sites, buildings, facilities, equipment, operations, and environments

  • Computational errors, poor assumptions, converting units of measure, improper safety factors

  • Sky Light example


Sources of hazards production distribution
Sources of Hazards – Murphy’s Law . . ., 1980)Production & Distribution

  • Potential unforeseen changes between design and construction

  • Substitution of materials or fasteners

  • Substitution of chemicals

  • Poor packaging


Sources of hazards maintenance repair
Sources of Hazards – Murphy’s Law . . ., 1980)Maintenance & Repair

  • Insufficient, delayed, improper maintenance

  • Equipment or operations may be well designed for normal use, but no design consideration was given for installation, maintenance, housekeeping

    • LOTO – Lock Out Tag Out

    • Preventative Maintenance, 5S


Preventative maintenance 5s
Preventative Maintenance, 5S Murphy’s Law . . ., 1980)

  • 5S philosophy focuses on effective workplace organization and standardized work procedures. It simplifies your work environment, reduces waste and non-value activity while improving quality, efficiency, and safety.

  • “All I Really Need to Know I Learned in Kindergarten”, Robert Fulghum

  • Sort (Seiri) – eliminate unnecessary items from the workplace; red-tag items and move out


5s continues
5S Continues Murphy’s Law . . ., 1980)

2. Set in order (Seiton) – efficient & effective storage methods; painting floors; outlining work areas & locations; shadow boards; modular shelving & cabinets; “A place for everything and everything in its place”

  • What do I need to do my job?

  • Where should I locate this item?

  • How many of this item do I really need?

    3. Shine (Seiso) – Thoroughly clean the work area; daily follow-up cleaning


5s continued
5S Continued Murphy’s Law . . ., 1980)

4. Standardize (Seiketsu) – Standardize best practice in your work area; allow employee participation in development

  • Sustain (Shitsuke) – Focus on defining a new status quo and standard of workplace organization; Don’t revert to old ways

  • Sometimes a 6th “S” is added to represent “Safety”


Sources of hazards communication
Sources of Hazards – Communication Murphy’s Law . . ., 1980)

  • Changes in design, operations, procedures are not communicated adequately to those impacted

  • Consider the four components of communication

    • Sender

    • Medium

    • Message

    • Receiver

  • The gulf between the sender and receiver can be great


Principles of hazard control
Principles of Hazard Control Murphy’s Law . . ., 1980)

  • Identification

  • Evaluation

  • Control

    • Engineering Controls

    • Administrative Controls

    • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)


Knowledge recognition of hazards
Knowledge & Recognition of Hazards Murphy’s Law . . ., 1980)

  • No one person can be fully knowledgeable about all hazards

  • Several disciplines and people must work together

  • Take a systems approach, understand the context

    • Human

    • Machine

    • Materials

    • Environment

  • Historical Approach (see next slide)

  • See OSHA Website: Statistics



Hazard control priorities
Hazard Control Priorities Murphy’s Law . . ., 1980)

  • Eliminate the hazard (engineering)

  • Reduce the hazard level (engineering or administrative)

  • Provide safety devices (engineering or administrative)

  • Provide warnings (administrative)

  • Provide safety procedures (administrative)

  • Provide PPE (PPE)


Reducing hazards
Reducing Hazards Murphy’s Law . . ., 1980)

  • Redundancy

    • 2 or more parallel subsystems or components

    • Backup systems or contingency plans

  • Single Point Failure

    • A single component or subsystem that can bring down the entire system

    • Example: Dead car battery

    • Search for and eliminate


Redundancy vs single point failure
Redundancy vs. Single Point Failure Murphy’s Law . . ., 1980)


Safety devices
Safety Devices Murphy’s Law . . ., 1980)

  • Features or controls that prevent people from being exposed to a hazard

  • Must be automatic

  • They do not remove the hazard

  • Examples

    • Machine guards

    • Fail-safe devices (e.g., automatic fire doors, dead man switch, air brakes on truck trailers and railcars)


Fail safe devices
Fail-Safe Devices Murphy’s Law . . ., 1980)

  • Fail-Passive

    • Reduces system to its lowest energy level

    • Circuit breaker, fuse, dead man switch

  • Fail-Active

    • Keep system energized, but in a “safe mode”

    • Battery-operated smoke alarm chirps when low

    • Traffic signal blinks yellow or red on malfunction

  • Fail-Operational

    • Allows the system to function safely even when the device fails (e.g. aircraft auto-land controls)


Provide warnings
Provide Warnings Murphy’s Law . . ., 1980)

  • How effective are Warnings? See previous lecture.


Procedures
Procedures Murphy’s Law . . ., 1980)

  • Sets of actions that must be executed

  • People must learn to use safe procedures

  • Must be developed and understood before they are used

  • Safety procedures are just as important as operational procedures


Assignment1
Assignment Murphy’s Law . . ., 1980)

  • Read Chapter 9 from Brauer Text

  • Do the odd numbered Review Questions

    • P. 109

    • Due: ?


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