Ch 1 matter and change
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Ch.1: Matter and Change. 1.1 Chemistry. Chemistry. study of matter and the changes it undergoes chemists use instruments to improve their ability to observe and make measurements. Chemistry. chemists work with chemicals (any substance with definite composition)

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Ch.1: Matter and Change

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Ch 1 matter and change

Ch.1: Matter and Change

1.1 Chemistry


Chemistry

Chemistry

  • study of matter and the changes it undergoes

  • chemists use instruments to improve their ability to observe and make measurements


Chemistry1

Chemistry

  • chemists work with chemicals (any substance with definite composition)

  • all matter has chemical basis whether it is living or nonliving


Properties of matter

Properties of Matter

  • chemists use characteristic properties to tell substances apart and to separate them

  • some properties define a group of substances


Types of properties

Physical- characteristics that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of a substance

Chemical- relates to a substances ability to undergo changes that transform it into a different substance

Easiest to see when a chemical is reacting

Types of Properties


Physical changes in matter

Physical Changes in Matter

  • change in a substance that doesn’t change the identity of the substance

  • Ex. grinding, cutting, melting, boiling

  • Includes all changes of state (physical changes of a substance from one state to another)


Solid

Solid

  • definite volume

  • definite shape

  • atoms are packed together in fixed positions

  • strong attractive forces between atoms

  • only vibrate in place


Liquid

Liquid

  • definite volume

  • indefinite shape

  • atoms are close together

  • atoms can overcome attractive forces to flow


Gases

Gases

  • indefinite volume

  • indefinite shape

  • atoms move very quickly

  • atoms are far apart

  • pretty weak attractive forces


Chemical changes in matter

Chemical Changes in Matter

  • a change in which a substance is converted into a different substance

  • same as chemical reaction

  • doesn’t change the amount of matter present

  • reactants- substances that react

  • products- substances that form


Energy changes in matter

Energy Changes in Matter

  • when any change occurs, energy is always involved

  • energy can be in different forms (light, heat, etc.)

  • energy is never destroyed or created (law of conservation of energy)


Energy changes in matter1

Energy Changes in Matter

  • Exothermic Reaction- reaction that gives off energy (feels warm on outside)

  • Endothermic Reaction- reaction that uses up energy (feels cold on outside)


Elements

Elements

  • elements are pure substances

  • organized by properties on periodic table

  • each square shows the name and letter symbol for each element

  • usually the symbols relate to the English names but some come from older names (usually Latin)

  • Ex: gold’s symbol is Au from aurum

  • Ex: iron’s symbol is Fe from ferrum


Periodic table

Periodic Table

  • Groups

    • also called families

    • vertical columns

    • numbered 118

    • have similar chemical properties

  • Periods

    • horizontal rows

    • properties changes consistently across a period


Periodic table1

Periodic Table


Periodic table2

Periodic Table

  • two rows below the periodic table are the lanthanide and actinide series

  • these rows fit after #57 and #89

  • they are only at the bottom to keep the width of the chart smaller


Types of elements

Types of Elements

  • Metals

    • an element that is a good conductor of electricity

    • at room temperature, most are solids

    • malleable- can be rolled or hammered into sheets

    • ductile- can be made into wire

    • high tensile strength- can resist breakage when pulled

    • most have silvery or grayish white luster


Types of elements1

Types of Elements

  • Nonmetals

    • an element that is a poor conductor of heat and electricity

    • many are gases at room temperature

    • some are solids: usually brittle, not malleable


Types of elements2

Types of Elements

  • Metalloids

    • an element that has some characteristics of metals and nonmetals

    • appear along staricase line

    • B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te

    • all are solids at room temperature

    • less malleable that metals but less brittle than nonmetals

    • are semiconductors


Types of elements3

Types of Elements

  • Noble Gases

    • generally unreactive gases

    • in far right column of periodic table


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