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Beyond the Solar System. Terms. Quark Subatomic particle Makes up protons and neutrons Degenerate matter Compressed atoms Electrons pushed close to nucleus. Terms. Interstellar “Between the stars” Any part of the universe not within a solar system Parsec (pc): 3.26 light-years

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Terms
Terms

  • Quark

    • Subatomic particle

    • Makes up protons and neutrons

  • Degenerate matter

    • Compressed atoms

    • Electrons pushed close to nucleus


Terms1
Terms

  • Interstellar

    • “Between the stars”

    • Any part of the universe not within a solar system

  • Parsec (pc): 3.26 light-years

  • Kiloparsec (Kpc): 1000 parsecs

  • Megaparsec (Mpc): 1 million parsecs


Terms2
Terms

  • Magnitude

    • Brightness of a celestial object

    • Higher number = dimmer object


Beyond the solar system1
Beyond the Solar System

PSCI 131: Beyond the Solar System

  • Introduction to the Universe

  • Interstellar Matter

  • Classifying Stars

  • Stellar Evolution

  • Stellar Remnants


Introduction to the universe
Introduction to the Universe

PSCI 131: Beyond the Solar System


How the universe is organized
How the Universe is Organized

PSCI 131: Beyond the Solar System – Intro to the Universe

  • Galactic clusters

    • Galaxies

      • Stars/solar systems

  • Where are we?

  • Local Group galactic cluster

    • Milky Way galaxy

      • Our solar system

Map of the Local Group.

pc: parsec. Mpc: megaparsec.


Size of the known universe
Size of the Known Universe

PSCI 131: Beyond the Solar System – Intro to the Universe

  • 100s of billions of galaxies

  • Nearest large galaxy: 2.5 million ly (light-yrs)

  • Furthest object observed: 13 billion ly

From: nasa.gov

Hubble Telescope “Deep Field” image. Most objects are distant galaxies.


History of the universe
History of the Universe

PSCI 131: Beyond the Solar System – Intro to the Universe

  • Age: about 13.7 billion years

From: tandempost.com

The Big Bang and the evolution of the universe. Matter has cooled and “clumped” over time to form galaxies and stars.


Interstellar matter
Interstellar Matter

PSCI 131: Beyond the Solar System


Interstellar matter1
Interstellar Matter

PSCI 131: Beyond the Solar System

  • Matter that occupies space between solar systems

  • Mostly dispersed hydrogen and helium atoms (99%)

  • Rest is atom-sized dust of other elements

  • Nebula: localized concentration of gas and dust into a cloud


Role of nebulae
Role of Nebulae

PSCI 131: Beyond the Solar System: Interstellar Matter

  • Birth of stars and solar systems


Types of nebulae
Types of Nebulae

PSCI 131: Beyond the Solar System: Interstellar Matter

  • Bright

    • Emission

    • Reflection

    • Planetary

  • Dark


Bright nebulae emission
Bright Nebulae: Emission

PSCI 131: Beyond the Solar System: Interstellar Matter

  • Emit their own radiation

  • Glowing gases

The Lagoon Nebula, 1,250 parsecs from Earth.


Bright nebulae reflection
Bright Nebulae: Reflection

PSCI 131: Beyond the Solar System: Interstellar Matter

  • Reflect radiation from other sources

From: thinkquest.org

The Merope Nebula, in the Pleiades star cluster.


Bright nebulae planetary
Bright Nebulae: Planetary

PSCI 131: Beyond the Solar System: Interstellar Matter

  • Envelope of gases ejected from a dying medium-mass star

  • Gases glow (emit their own radiation)

From: thinkquest.org

The Helix Nebula, remnant of a dead Sun-like star.


Dark nebulae
Dark Nebulae

PSCI 131: Beyond the Solar System: Interstellar Matter

  • Not hot enough to glow

  • Not close enough to light sources to reflect

The Horsehead Nebula.

From: nasa.gov


Classifying stars
Classifying Stars

PSCI 131: Beyond the Solar System


Luminosity
Luminosity

PSCI 131: Beyond the Solar System: Classifying Stars

  • Brightness relative to the Sun (Sun=1)

  • Expresses “true” brightness of an object

    • Distance from Earth is factored out


The herzsprung russell diagram
The Herzsprung-Russell Diagram

PSCI 131: Beyond the Solar System: Classifying Stars

Brightest

Luminosity

Dimmest

Hottest

Coolest

Surface temperature


Stellar evolution
Stellar Evolution

PSCI 131: Beyond the Solar System


Two key forces within stars
Two Key Forces Within Stars

PSCI 131: Beyond the Solar System: Stellar Evolution

  • Gravity

    • Promotes contraction

  • Gas pressure

    • Outward movement of gas and energy from star’s core

    • Promotes expansion

  • Stellar evolution is a balance between them


Steps in a star s life cycle
Steps in a Star’s Life Cycle

PSCI 131: Beyond the Solar System: Stellar Evolution

  • Birth

  • Protostar

  • Main-sequence

  • Red Giant*

  • Death

    *Medium- and high-mass stars

    only

Stellar evolution of a medium-mass star, plotted on the H-R diagram.


Stellar birth
Stellar Birth

PSCI 131: Beyond the Solar System: Stellar Evolution

  • Contraction and heating of nebular gases (mostly hydrogen)


Protostar
Protostar

PSCI 131: Beyond the Solar System: Stellar Evolution

  • Contracting nebula becomes hot enough to glow


Main sequence
Main Sequence

PSCI 131: Beyond the Solar System: Stellar Evolution

  • Nuclear fusion begins

  • Gas pressure balances gravity

  • Star becomes stable

  • Longest part of cycle


Red giant
Red Giant

PSCI 131: Beyond the Solar System: Stellar Evolution

  • Hydrogen fuel in core runs out

  • Star expands, cools


Red giant1
Red Giant

PSCI 131: Beyond the Solar System: Stellar Evolution

  • Core

    • Hydrogen fuel depleted, nuclear fusion stops

    • Core collapses and heats up

    • Heat radiates into outer shell


Red giant2
Red Giant

PSCI 131: Beyond the Solar System: Stellar Evolution

  • Outer shell

    • Nuclear fusion continues

    • Accelerated by heat from core

    • More gas pressure, so outer shell expands and cools


Red giant3
Red Giant

PSCI 131: Beyond the Solar System: Stellar Evolution

  • Outer shell

    • Gravity balances gas pressure

    • Expansion stops

    • Size of star becomes stable

  • Core

    • Still contracting and heating: 2 million degrees F

    • Starts to fuse helium, forming carbon


Stellar death low mass stars
Stellar Death: Low-mass stars

PSCI 131: Beyond the Solar System: Stellar Evolution

  • Stars with less than one-half of Sun’s mass

  • No red giant stage

    • Not enough heat from gravitational collapse

  • Contract into a white dwarf star when hydrogen depleted


Stellar death medium mass stars
Stellar Death: Medium-mass stars

PSCI 131: Beyond the Solar System: Stellar Evolution

  • Stars one-half to eight times Sun’s mass

  • Core contracts into a white dwarf when helium gone

  • Outer shell ejected into space: planetary nebula


Stellar death high mass stars
Stellar Death: High-mass stars

PSCI 131: Beyond the Solar System: Stellar Evolution

  • Stars more than eight times Sun’s mass

  • Core collapses

    • Heat causes outer shell to explode in a supernova

      • Brightness increases by millions of times

      • Generates heavier elements (gold, lead, uranium, etc.)

    • Collapsed core becomes a neutron star or black hole, depending on star’s mass


Stellar remnants
Stellar Remnants

PSCI 131: Beyond the Solar System


Types of stellar remnants
Types of Stellar Remnants

PSCI 131: Beyond the Solar System

  • White dwarf

    • Low- and medium-mass stars

  • Neutron star

    • High-mass stars

  • Black hole


White dwarf
White Dwarf

PSCI 131: Beyond the Solar System: Stellar Remnants

  • About Earth-sized, but mass is similar to Sun’s

  • Degenerate matter

    • Extremely dense

  • A handful would weigh many tons


Neutron star
Neutron Star

PSCI 131: Beyond the Solar System: Stellar Remnants

  • Denser than white dwarf

  • Electrons pushed into nucleus

  • A handful would weigh millions of tons

Hypothesized cross-section of a neutron star. Note mass and diameter.


Black holes
Black Holes

PSCI 131: Beyond the Solar System: Stellar Remnants

  • Densest known objects

  • Remnants of highest-mass stars (more than 25 times Sun’s mass)

  • Radiation (light) can’t escape gravity


Black holes1
Black Holes

PSCI 131: Beyond the Solar System: Stellar Remnants

Artist’s conception of a black hole. Matter being pulled in gives off energy as it is compressed, creating detectable signals from around the black hole itself. Inset shows jet of electrons from a black hole in galaxy M87 (bright area).



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