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WELCOME!!!!!. DMAIC in a Day Kate Isaacsen. Agenda. Change Management DAMIC familiarization OEE Single Piece Flow Practical Tools Q & A. Change Management. Change Management. IT’S TOUGH TO CHANGE!!! Invasion Of Privacy A Little Change Is Fun A Little More Is Stressful

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Welcome

WELCOME!!!!!

DMAIC in a Day

Kate Isaacsen


Agenda
Agenda

  • Change Management

  • DAMIC familiarization

  • OEE

  • Single Piece Flow

  • Practical Tools

  • Q & A



Change management1
Change Management

  • IT’S TOUGH TO CHANGE!!!

  • Invasion Of Privacy

  • A Little Change Is Fun

  • A Little More Is Stressful

  • Too Much And They Give Up


Change Management

Shocking lessons

  • #1: Most people do not think in terms of processes. They would rather think in terms of isolated events.

  • #2: When convinced of the value of thinking in terms of processes, most people still don’t think in terms of processes.

  • #3:The word “process” generates fear and resistance.


Change management2
Change Management

  • Increased understanding  decreased confusion

  • Increased commitment  decreased resistance

  • Increased capability  decreased fear of failure



Damic
DAMIC

  • Define

  • Measure

  • Analyze

  • Improve

  • Control








Overall Process Effectiveness NumberOPE = %Availability X %Performance X % QualityAvailability = Time the process is working correctlyPerformance = Rate at which the process is performedQuality = How well the process meets specificationsOverall Activity Effectiveness NumberOAE = %Availability X %Performance X % QualityAvailability = Time the activity is working correctlyPerformance = Rate at which the activity is performQuality = How well activity meets specifications OEE = %Availability X %Performance X % QualityOperational Equipment Effectiveness NumberAvailability = Time the equipment is working correctlyPerformance = Rate at which equipment is operatingQuality = How well equipment meets specifications

OPE/OAE/OEE


OPE/OAE/OEE

Max Time Available = 24 hr * 7 days/wk = 168 hrs/wk

Operational Asset

Utilization

Unscheduled

Time

Business Decision

= Cost Impact

Total Time Available as Scheduled => Could be 168 hrs

Operational Availability = Gross

Operating Time = Labor Utilization

Breaks

Lunch

Weekends

Holidays

Unplanned

Downtime

Planned

Downtime

Availability Rate

Speed Losses

Inefficiency

Learning

Performance Rate

Net Operating Time = Performance Rate

= Performance Against Standards

Quality Operating Time =

First Pass Yield/Other Yield

Defect Losses

Scrap/Rework

OEE Benchmark is Equipment Specific

Quality Rate

OEE %

Operational Equipment Effectiveness = Availability * Performance * Quality

OEE = 95% * 95% * 95% = 85%



When items are produced and moved from one processing step to the next, one-at-a-time, without stoppages, scrap, or backflow

Single Piece Flow

  • Consistent flow rate

  • Drumbeat: regular, linear, even capacity utilization

  • Synchronized with the customer

Quest Diagnostics Confidential & Proprietary


Practical exercises
Practical Exercises to the next, one-at-a-time, without stoppages, scrap, or backflow

  • Round About

  • Candy Cups


Charter

Charter to the next, one-at-a-time, without stoppages, scrap, or backflow


Cytology Processing Kaizen Event to the next, one-at-a-time, without stoppages, scrap, or backflow

Define: Team Charter

Scope

Business Case

  • All business units are challenged to improve overall productivity in specimen processing. This project is directly linked to the Blue Print objective of improving cost per requisition, possible FTE savings and increased revenue per day.

Start:When Thin Preps and SurePaths are delivered to Cytology Processing

Stop:When slides are placed on slide cart for further processing

Exclude:Conventional slides

Problem Statement

Goal

  • On a daily basis Cytology Processing handles an average of 1,560 specimens. The current workflow requires additional steps throughout the process. Eliminating redundant movement will maximize efficiency and throughput.

  • To reduce the distance traveled while processing Thin Preps and SurePaths by a minimum of 50%.


Sipoc

SIPOC to the next, one-at-a-time, without stoppages, scrap, or backflow


Sipoc1
SIPOC to the next, one-at-a-time, without stoppages, scrap, or backflow


Define: SIPOC to the next, one-at-a-time, without stoppages, scrap, or backflow

lass

lass

Cytology Processing Kaizen Event

Suppliers

Process

Outputs

Customers

Inputs

Slides ready for cytology reading

Requisitions ready for keying into Copath.

Ready for transport to Sendouts

Patients

Drs Offices

Vendors

IT

Logistics

Accessioning

HC requisitions

Specimen vials

Electronic demographics and test request

Patients

Drs Offices

Insurance Companies

Cytologists

Billing

Client Services

Cytology

Processing

High level process

Start

Stop

Transport

To cytology

Prep specimens

Stain slides

Image specimens

Gather


SIPOC to the next, one-at-a-time, without stoppages, scrap, or backflow

Inputs/Suppliers

  • Where does the information or material you work on come from? Who are your suppliers?

  • What do they supply?

  • How do our suppliers affect what we do?

  • What effect do they have on our job and on the outcome?

    Process steps

  • What happens to each input?

  • What conversion activities take place?

Purpose

  • What do we do?

  • What is the purpose?

  • What is the outcome?

    Outputs

  • What product do we make?

  • What are the outputs?

  • At what point are we done?

    Customers

  • Who uses the products?

  • Who are the customers?


Stakeholder analysis

Stakeholder Analysis to the next, one-at-a-time, without stoppages, scrap, or backflow


Stakeholder Analysis for Change to the next, one-at-a-time, without stoppages, scrap, or backflow

Used for:

Identifying stakeholders and their position on a particular Six Sigma change initiative.

Names

Strongly

Against

Moderately

Against

Neutral

Moderately

Supportive

Strongly

Supportive

Stakeholder Analysis

People resist or support change for a variety of reasons


Stakeholder Analysis to the next, one-at-a-time, without stoppages, scrap, or backflow

Change = reducing number of suppliers

Moderately

Supportive (+1)

Strongly

Supportive (+2)

Strongly

Against (-2)

Moderately

Against (-1)

Names

Neutral (0)

X

Ref. Physicians

File Clerks

X

X

IT Department

EquipmentVendors

Techs

CFO

X

X

  • Who will care?

  • What commitment level now; minimum needed? Critical attention?

  • Who influences whom?

Solid Line = Critical To Move

Dotted Line = Important But Not Urgent

= Okay Where They Are


I. STAKEHOLDER II. MAJOR CONCERNS/INTERESTS III. OUR STRATEGY

Stakeholder Analysis

  • A STAKEHOLDER IS ANY PERSON OR GROUP OF PEOPLE THAT IS:

  • Responsible for the final decision.

  • Likely to be affected, positively or negatively, by the outcomes you want.

  • In a position to assist or block achievement of the outcomes.

  • Has expertise or special resources that could substantially affect the quality of your end product/service.


FMEA III. OUR STRATEGY


FMEA III. OUR STRATEGY

1. For each Process Step, list ways that it can vary or go wrong (Failure Modes)

2. Identify Effects associated with each Failure Mode

3. List all Causes for each Failure Mode (These could be outputs from a previous process step or additional inputs to this step).

4. List the Current Controls for each Cause

5. Create Severity, Occurrence, and Detection rating scales

6. Assign Severity, Occurrence and Detection ratings to each Cause

7.Calculate the risk priority number for each potential Failure mode scenario

8. Determine recommended actions, with responsible parties assigned and estimated date of completion, to reduce High RPNs - Estimate effect of Actions on RPN (SEV, OCC, DET).

9.Take appropriate actions and re-calculate all RPNs


FMEA III. OUR STRATEGY

  • Process Step/Function - simple description of the process step or function being analyzed.

  • Failure Mode- the manner in which a specific Process Step could potentially fail to meet process requirements or intent.

    • It is a description of malfunction at the process step under consideration.

    • can be an Effect(Output) of a failure in a previous operation or

    • can be a Cause (Input) of a failure in a subsequent operation.

  • Failure Effect - impact on the customer.

    • The effect is described in terms of what the customer might notice or experience (outputs on process map).

  • Cause

    • Sources of process variation that causes the Failure Mode to occur.

    • Causes are things that could be corrected or controlled (inputs on process map).

  • Current Controls

    • systematized methods/devices in place to prevent or detect Failure Modes or Causes (before causing effects).


FMEA III. OUR STRATEGY

What is the process step being analyzed?

What is the Effect on the Outputs?

What can go wrong with the Input?

How can this be found?

In what way could the process step fail to meet requirements?

How Bad?

How Often?

How well can we detect?


RPN = Severity X Occurrence X Detection III. OUR STRATEGY

Effects

Causes

Controls

FMEA

  • The output of an FMEA is the Risk Priority Number

  • The RPN is a calculated number based on information you provide regarding

    • the potential failure modes,

    • the effects, and

    • the current ability of the process to detect the failures before reaching the customer

  • The severity of the effects x rating on how often it occurs * ability to detect


Spaghetti map

Spaghetti Map III. OUR STRATEGY


Spaghetti map1
Spaghetti Map III. OUR STRATEGY

After

Before


Spaghetti map2
Spaghetti Map III. OUR STRATEGY

An Illustration of a System’s Inefficiency

Quest Diagnostics Confidential & Proprietary


Benefits of Spaghetti Charting III. OUR STRATEGY

  • Identifies Inefficiencies in Area/Plant Layout

  • Identifies Opportunities For Less Handling

  • Identifies Opportunities For Better Workforce Communication

  • Identifies Resource Allocation Opportunities

  • Identifies Opportunities For Safety Improvements


Spaghetti map3
Spaghetti Map III. OUR STRATEGY

  • Sketch or Obtain “Facility Layout, Map”

  • “Become the Product”

    • Walk the Process As if Your Where the Product (A Requisition, Specimen Tube, etc.)

    • Mark the Process Locations and Steps on the Layout

  • Connect the Dots in Accordance With the Actual ‘Travel or Walk Patterns’

  • Calculate the Distance

Where is There Excessive or Unnecessary Movement?


Value add analysis

Value Add Analysis III. OUR STRATEGY


Value add analysis1
Value Add Analysis III. OUR STRATEGY

Quest Diagnostics Confidential & Proprietary


Value add analysis2
Value Add Analysis III. OUR STRATEGY

Seven Types of Waste:

  • Defects

  • Overproduction

  • Transport

  • Waiting

  • Inventory

  • Motion

  • Extra Processing

Quest Diagnostics Confidential & Proprietary


Value add analyses

Value Added III. OUR STRATEGY

Non-Value Added

Value Add Analyses


Control plan

Control Plan III. OUR STRATEGY


PROCESS CONTROL PLAN III. OUR STRATEGY

Notify Customer of Resolution in 48 hours

9.0 Managing Customer Relationships

Core Process:

Implemented Process:

Project Goal::

Critical To Quality:

Client Problem Resolution

Timely Notification of

Resolution.

Date: 12/03/01

Comments

If Indicators out of Control...

Indicators

Action

Plan

Responsible

Party

Frequency

Item to Review

Control

Limits

Measure

UCL=

LCL=

UCL=

LCL=

UCL=

LCL=

UCL =

LCL =

UCL=

LCL=

Spec =

Spec =

Spec=

MSE

Gauge R&R on

CSR & Problem

Res. Group data

input accuracy

Quarterly

Functional Mgr

w/ assistance of

GB/BB

Key Xs:

X1= % Problems

Requiring

Investigation

Review Criteria

for CIR and give

Feedback to

Originators

# CIR vs

Problem Tracking from

Database

Service Solutions

Monthly

  • OPS

  • Service Solutions

Review Criteria

for CIR and give

Feedback to

Originators

  • Sample of CIR’s (dept

  • code)

  • CIR Database

  • Daily

  • Monthly

X2 =% Priority 1

vs Priority 2

X3= % CIR’s

Received

Incomplete

Sample of CIR’s

  • OPS

  • Daily

X4= % CIR’s

Rerouted to

Another Dept

  • Daily

  • Monthly

  • OPS

  • Service Solutions

Review individual

CIR’s as to reason

for reroute.

Address drivers

CIR Database

X5 = Cycle Time

for Client

Notification

Service Solution

& Customer

Satisfaction Team

Investigate if

X > 48 hrs and

address drivers

Bi-Weekly

CIR Database

Key Ys:

Service Solution

& Customer

Satisfaction Team

Y1 =% Customers

Notified After

48 Hours

Bi-Weekly

Investigate if

X > 3.5% and

Address drivers

CIR Database

Y2 = % CIR’s

closed After

120 Hours

Investigate if

X> 5% and

address drivers

CIR Database

Bi-Weekly

Service Solutions

& Customer

Satisfaction Team

Y3 =% Customer

Satisfied

with Priority 1

Investigate if

Y < 97%.

CIR Database

Service Solutions

& Customer

Satisfaction Team

Monthly

T.Pate 12/04/01

Page 2 of 2

ProcessControlPlan.pp.


PROCESS CONTROL PLAN III. OUR STRATEGY

Notify Customer of Resolution in 48 hours

9.0 Managing Customer Relationships

Core Process:

Implemented Process:

Project Goal::

Critical To Quality:

Client Problem Resolution

Timely Notification of

Resolution.

Date: 12/03/01

Process Flowchart

Indicators

Client Service

Service Solution

Sales

Other Depts

Client

Measure

Page 1 of 2

ProcessControlPlan.pp.


ARMI III. OUR STRATEGY


ARMI III. OUR STRATEGY


Process maps

Process Maps III. OUR STRATEGY


Process maps1
Process Maps III. OUR STRATEGY

  • There are many types of process maps.

    • Flow Chart

    • Functional Deployment Map

    • Value Stream Map

    • SOP

    • List of Steps


Agenda1
Agenda III. OUR STRATEGY

  • Change Management

  • DAMIC familiarization

  • OEE

  • Single Piece Flow

  • Practical Tools

  • Q & A


? III. OUR STRATEGY


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