Food science
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Food Science. What’s in your food?. Learning objectives. Understand what food additives are and why they are used. Preservation. Need to make food last longer – preserve it Salt (remove water) Vinegar (pickling) Alcohol (kill microbes) Knowledge of chemistry

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Food Science

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Food science

Food Science

What’s in your food?


Learning objectives

Learning objectives

  • Understand what food additives are and why they are used


Preservation

Preservation

  • Need to make food last longer – preserve it

    • Salt (remove water)

    • Vinegar (pickling)

    • Alcohol (kill microbes)

  • Knowledge of chemistry

  • Also use chemistry to improve flavours or appearance


Food additives

Anti-oxidants

Stop food reacting with oxygen

Goes brown

Flavourings

Gives a certain taste or smell

Enhancers – MSG

Thickeners

Help foods mix

Sweeteners

Artificial

No energy

Food additives


Food additives1

Food additives

  • Substance added to a food

    • Food additive

  • Approved for use in Europe

    • Given an ‘E’ number

    • Identify them rather than name them

  • Eg.E102 is tartrazine (yellow colouring)

    E220 is sulphur dioxide (preservative)

  • Six types of additive


Food additives2

Food additives


Food additives3

Food additives


Others not on the list

Others not on the list

  • 901 = beeswax – glazing agent

  • 904 = shellac – glazing agent

  • 910 = L-cystiene – improving agent used in bread… made from human hair!!!


Food science

  • What is a food additive and why might they be used?

  • How does the system used in Europe identify additives?


Detecting additives

Detecting additives

  • Food scientists – investigate what has been added

  • Complicated versions of simple techniques

  • Chromatography

    • How well something dissolves in a solvent

    • Solubility determines how far they move across a surface

    • Separation technique


Investigating food dyes

Investigating food dyes

  • Test a selection of food dyes with chromatography

  • Which dyes are pure and which are mixtures?

  • What are the component colours of each dye?

  • Solvent = water, matrix = paper


Identifying ingredients

Identifying ingredients

  • Separated by chromatography

  • Identified by comparing to known ingredients

    • Compare chromatogram

  • Hi-tech – mass spectrometer

    • Compares relative atomic mass

  • Chemical make up can be indentified


Learning outcomes

Learning outcomes

  • Why are food additives used?

  • What qualities might be enhanced?

  • How can food be preserved?

  • How are additives labelled?


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