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Ethics cont. Psych 231: Research Methods in Psychology. Exam 1 in two days! Review session tonight DeGarmo 18 @ 5:00. Announcements. Basic courtesy Institutional review board approval Informed consent Avoiding deception. Freedom from coercion Protection from harm Debriefing

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Ethics cont.

Psych 231: Research Methods in Psychology


  • Exam 1 in two days!

  • Review session tonight

    • DeGarmo 18 @ 5:00

Announcements


  • Basic courtesy

  • Institutional review board approval

  • Informed consent

  • Avoiding deception

  • Freedom from coercion

  • Protection from harm

  • Debriefing

  • Confidentiality

  • Costs vs. Benefits

APA’s code of ethics

www.apa.org/ethics/code2002.html


Costs

Benefits

  • Costs: all potential risks to the participants

    • Physical harm

    • Psychological harm

    • Loss of confidentiality

  • Benefits: the “good” outcomes

    • Direct benefits to participants

    • Benefits to knowledge base

    • Benefits to world at large

Costs/Benefits analysis


  • Fraud prevention

    • Replication – repeat a research study to validate results

    • Plagiarism – taking credit for another’s work or ideas

      • Avoided by citing the ideas or words of others

    • Peer Review – critical analysis of research by peers in the same area

Scientific Integrity


  • Dirty tricks (this will get you thrown out)

  • Questionable tricks (these are a little fuzzier, but be wary)

  • Neat tricks (accepted as okay, and sometimes necessary)

Ethics in Science Quiz

Ethical responsibility to science


  • Dirty tricks

  • Questionable tricks

  • Neat tricks

  • Fabrication of results

  • Reformulating your theory as you go

  • Falsifying credentials

  • Plagiarism

  • Little or no attempt to minimize confounds

  • Deliberately hiding (significant) errors in published work

  • Little or no attempt to minimize demand characteristics

Ethics in Science Quiz

DT

NT

DT

DT

QT

DT

QT

Ethical responsibility to science


  • Dirty tricks

  • Questionable tricks

  • Neat tricks

  • Throwing out data

  • Reorganizing order of report of experiments

  • Violations of underlying statistical assumptions

  • Strategic graphing of the data

  • Duplicate publications (presented as new)

  • Selective reporting of the results

  • Leaving out some bad experiments (not bad results)

Ethics in Science Quiz

QT or

DT

depends reason for throwing out

NT

QT

QT

DT

QT

NT

Ethical responsibility to science


  • Why use animals in research?

    • Same building blocks (e.g., nervous systems)

    • Control

      • Often we can’t control the relevant past experiences of our human subjects, but we can with animals

      • Easier to control certain experimental factors with animals

    • Irreversible and/or harmful effects

Using animals in research


  • Why use animals in research (cont.)?

    • Some unique, special characteristics

    • Simpler systems

    • May allow you to focus on particular variables (IV’s and DV’s), easier to do the experiment without a lot of complex interactions

Using animals in research


  • But animals and humans are different

    • Well, there are strong similarities

      • Evolution - Common ancestry - as a result, things may work in similar ways

    • But, we do need to be aware that there are differences, and always keep that critical eye, think of alternative explanations

Using animals in research


  • If animals are so similar to humans, then should they have similar rights that humans have? Is it unethical to do things to them that we wouldn’t do to ourselves?

  • There is no simple answer, no clear right or wrong. Each individual must decide for themselves.

Animal ethics: What rights do animals have?


  • Exam 1

    • Coverage

      • Textbook (chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, 6), lectures, & labs

  • Scientific method

  • Getting ideas

  • Developing (good) theories

  • Reviewing the literature

  • Psychological Science

  • Ethics

  • Basic methodologies

  • Multiple choice and short answer questions

Next time


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