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Ethics cont. Psych 231: Research Methods in Psychology. Exam 1 in two days! Review session tonight DeGarmo 18 @ 5:00. Announcements. Basic courtesy Institutional review board approval Informed consent Avoiding deception. Freedom from coercion Protection from harm Debriefing

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Ethics cont

Ethics cont.

Psych 231: Research Methods in Psychology


Announcements

  • Exam 1 in two days!

  • Review session tonight

    • DeGarmo 18 @ 5:00

Announcements


Apa s code of ethics

  • Basic courtesy

  • Institutional review board approval

  • Informed consent

  • Avoiding deception

  • Freedom from coercion

  • Protection from harm

  • Debriefing

  • Confidentiality

  • Costs vs. Benefits

APA’s code of ethics

www.apa.org/ethics/code2002.html


Costs benefits analysis

Costs

Benefits

  • Costs: all potential risks to the participants

    • Physical harm

    • Psychological harm

    • Loss of confidentiality

  • Benefits: the “good” outcomes

    • Direct benefits to participants

    • Benefits to knowledge base

    • Benefits to world at large

Costs/Benefits analysis


Scientific integrity

  • Fraud prevention

    • Replication – repeat a research study to validate results

    • Plagiarism – taking credit for another’s work or ideas

      • Avoided by citing the ideas or words of others

    • Peer Review – critical analysis of research by peers in the same area

Scientific Integrity


Ethical responsibility to science

  • Dirty tricks (this will get you thrown out)

  • Questionable tricks (these are a little fuzzier, but be wary)

  • Neat tricks (accepted as okay, and sometimes necessary)

Ethics in Science Quiz

Ethical responsibility to science


Ethical responsibility to science1

  • Dirty tricks

  • Questionable tricks

  • Neat tricks

  • Fabrication of results

  • Reformulating your theory as you go

  • Falsifying credentials

  • Plagiarism

  • Little or no attempt to minimize confounds

  • Deliberately hiding (significant) errors in published work

  • Little or no attempt to minimize demand characteristics

Ethics in Science Quiz

DT

NT

DT

DT

QT

DT

QT

Ethical responsibility to science


Ethical responsibility to science2

  • Dirty tricks

  • Questionable tricks

  • Neat tricks

  • Throwing out data

  • Reorganizing order of report of experiments

  • Violations of underlying statistical assumptions

  • Strategic graphing of the data

  • Duplicate publications (presented as new)

  • Selective reporting of the results

  • Leaving out some bad experiments (not bad results)

Ethics in Science Quiz

QT or

DT

depends reason for throwing out

NT

QT

QT

DT

QT

NT

Ethical responsibility to science


Using animals in research

  • Why use animals in research?

    • Same building blocks (e.g., nervous systems)

    • Control

      • Often we can’t control the relevant past experiences of our human subjects, but we can with animals

      • Easier to control certain experimental factors with animals

    • Irreversible and/or harmful effects

Using animals in research


Using animals in research1

  • Why use animals in research (cont.)?

    • Some unique, special characteristics

    • Simpler systems

    • May allow you to focus on particular variables (IV’s and DV’s), easier to do the experiment without a lot of complex interactions

Using animals in research


Using animals in research2

  • But animals and humans are different

    • Well, there are strong similarities

      • Evolution - Common ancestry - as a result, things may work in similar ways

    • But, we do need to be aware that there are differences, and always keep that critical eye, think of alternative explanations

Using animals in research


Animal ethics what rights do animals have

  • If animals are so similar to humans, then should they have similar rights that humans have? Is it unethical to do things to them that we wouldn’t do to ourselves?

  • There is no simple answer, no clear right or wrong. Each individual must decide for themselves.

Animal ethics: What rights do animals have?


Next time

  • Exam 1

    • Coverage

      • Textbook (chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, 6), lectures, & labs

  • Scientific method

  • Getting ideas

  • Developing (good) theories

  • Reviewing the literature

  • Psychological Science

  • Ethics

  • Basic methodologies

  • Multiple choice and short answer questions

Next time


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