Vocab chapter 9
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Vocab Chapter 9. 1. ignominy- disgrace, humiliation, shame. When ancient Romans suffered ignominia (“disgrace” or “dishonor”), they were “without” “name”( nomen ), a condition that often drove them to suicide. Synonyms: dishonor, contempt, infamy.

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Vocab Chapter 9

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Vocab Chapter 9


1. ignominy- disgrace, humiliation, shame

  • When ancient Romans suffered ignominia(“disgrace” or “dishonor”), they were “without” “name”(nomen), a condition that often drove them to suicide.

  • Synonyms: dishonor, contempt, infamy


2. aboveboard- without dishonesty or trickery

  • Originally “aboveboard” was a gambler’s term, referring to shuffling and holding cards above the table or board (an early meaning for “board” being “table,” as can still be seen in the expressions “room and board” and “chairman of the board”).

  • Synonyms: forthright(ly), straightforward(ly), overt(ly)

  • Related word: candid(ly)


3. anecdote- brief story of an interesting or amusing incident

  • Procopius included many sensational and indecent incidents, probably intending that his stories not be revealed to the public, for he titled them Anecdota, from Greek an (“not”) + ek (“out”) + dotos (“given”).

  • Synonyms: sketch, fable, tale, narrative


4. bedlam -noisy confusion

  • St. Mary of Bethlehem was then converted into an insane asylum. In those days, visitors would tease and torment the inmates as if the inmates were wild, caged animals. The asylum became famous for its uproar and confusion.

  • Synonyms: uproar, chaos, pandemonium

  • Related word: tumult


5. martinet- strict discipline

  • During the reign of King Louis XIV of France, Colonel Martinet trained France’s army. A fierce disciplinarian, he developed precise drills and permitted not the least deviance.

  • Synonyms: taskmaster, slavedriver, authoritarian

  • Related word: tyrant


6. indolent- lazy

  • Indolentia was a Latin word meaning “freedom from pain,” formed from in (“not”) + dolens (“feeling pain”). When “indolence” entered English, it kept this spiritual or philosophical sense, meaning “a being insensible of pain or grief.”

  • Synonyms: idle, inactive, slothful

  • Related word: lethargic


7. meander: follow a winding course; wander idly or aimlessly

  • Miletus was situated at the mouth of the river Meander. This river, now part of Turkey, was noted for it twisting, turning, winding course. Today, we meander when following curving, crooked, twisting paths—be they literal or figurative.

  • Synonyms: roam, ramble, digress

  • Related word: zigzag


8. precocious- advanced beyond one’s age(especially in mental aptitude)

  • “Precocious” derives from Latin prae (“before”) and coquere (“cook”). Latin praecoquere meant “cook beforehand” or “ripen beforehand.” “precocious” entered the English language to refer to flowers and fruits that ripened early.

  • Synonyms: smart, brilliant, gifted, characterizing a child prodigy


Scapegoat -someone blamed for the faults of others

  • This second goat that escaped is called a “scapegoat” in the King James Version of the Bible (Leviticus XVI, “scape” being a shortened form of “escape.”

  • Synonym: victim, whipping boy

  • Related words: martyr


Shibboleth -password, slogan, or custom characteristic of a certain group and used to distinguish that group; empty, outworn expression or doctrine

  • The Ephraimites could not pronounce the “sh” sound and would say sibboleth instead of shibboleth. This mispronunciation revealed the true identity of the Ephraimites.

    Synonyms: Peculiarity, catchword, watchword, platitude


Induce

  • Persuade, bring about, cause


Seduce

  • Lead astray; persuade one to do wrong; persuade one to have sexual intercourse


Abduct

  • Carry off by force; kidnap


Traduce

  • slander


Conducive

  • Leading, contributing, promoting, helpful


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