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The Monocots: Part 1 Overview, Basal, and “Petaloid” Groups. Spring 2012. Figure 7.1 from the text. Synapomorphies of Monocots. Root system adventitious One cotyledon Stems with scattered vascular bundles ( no secondary growth ); herbaceous

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synapomorphies of monocots
Synapomorphies of Monocots
  • Root system adventitious
  • One cotyledon
  • Stems with scattered vascular bundles (no secondary growth); herbaceous
  • Leaves parallel-veined with a sheathing base
  • Flowers pentacyclic (5 whorls), trimerous
  • Sieve cell plastids with several cuneate protein crystals
  • Lots of molecular support for monophyly
additional features of monocots
Additional features of monocots
  • Leaves formed from the basal end of the leaf primordium
  • Usually with monosulcate pollen
  • Lack glandular teeth on leaves
monocot characters
Monocot characters
  • One cotyledon!

MONOCOT

NON-

MONOCOT

monocot characters1
Monocot characters

Leaves:

  • parallel venation in most monocots [may be reversals with net-venation!]
  • sheathing base

Trillium

Smilax

monocot characters2
Monocot characters

Cuneate protein bodies in sieve cell plastids

  • “wedge-shaped” inclusions
  • function unknown
monocot characters3
Monocot characters

Adventitious roots:

-derived from structures other than another root

monocot characters4
Monocot characters

Scattered vascular bundles in stem

  • numerous; actually complex organization
  • no vascular cambium (a few weird exceptions)
monocot characters5
Monocot characters
  • Pentacyclic, trimerous flowers with 2 perianth whorls and two whorls of stamens
how many monocots
How many monocots?
  • ca. 3,000 genera
  • ca. 65,000 species
  • 22-25% of angiosperms
  • Include:
    • -aroids
    • -bananas
    • -lilies
    • -gingers
    • -orchids (20,000+ spp.)
    • -irises
    • -palms
    • -grasses (10,000 spp.)
phylogeny of monocot groups
Phylogeny of Monocot Groups

Acorales

Alismatales

Liliales

Asparagales

Dioscoreales

Pandanales

Arecales

Poales

Commelinales

Zingiberales

Basal

“Petaloid”

Commelinoid

basal and petaloid monocot groups
Basal and “Petaloid” Monocot Groups

Order Acorales

Acoraceae

Order Alismatales

Araceae

Alismataceae

Order Liliales

Liliaceae

Order Asparagales

Agavaceae

Alliaceae

Amaryllidacaee

Iridaceae

Orchidaceae

basal monocots acorales acoraceae
Basal Monocots:Acorales: Acoraceae
  • Widespread, temperate throughout tropical regions
  • Aquatic herb
  • Diversity: 1-3 spp. in 1 genus (Acorus)
  • Flowers: typical of Araceae, coalesced into a spike-like spadix
  • Significant features: Sister to the rest of the monocots; contain ethereal oils.
  • Special uses: none
  • Family not required, but Acorus evolutionarily important
slide16

Acorus (sweet flag)–

The most basal monocot! Aquatic.

petaloid monocots alismatales araceae the arum family
“Petaloid” Monocots—Alismatales:Araceae(The Arum Family)
  • Cosmopolitan; greatest diversity in tropical regions
  • Terrestrial and aquatic herbs, vines, epiphytes, floating aquatics
  • Diversity: 3,300 species, 109 genera
  • Flowers: many, small; lacking extensive perianth, carpels 2-3; if unisexual then spatially separated in inflorescence or sometimes plants dioecious
  • Significant features: inflorescence – spadix subtended by a spathe (specialized leaf)
  • Special uses: many ornamentals; Colocasia as food
  • Required taxa: Arisaema, Lemna
araceae arisaema
Araceae—Arisaema

Arisaema dracontium

green dragon

Arisaema triphyllum

Jack-in-the-pulpit

Arisaema

sikokianum

-spathe margins overlapping below, spathe mostly arched above,

striped or marked

-spadix usually slender and elongate

-flowers unisexual and only at the base of the spadix

araceae
Araceae

Philodendron

Monstera

araceae lemna and friends
Araceae: Lemna and friends
  • Reduced plant body: no stem or leaves;
  • sometimes no roots
  • Rarely flower

Lemna ~ duckweed

alismatales araceae
Alismatales: Araceae

Economic plants and products:

  • Colocasia esculenta
  • Taro “root” or dasheen
  • “poi”
  • 10% of the world uses asstaple (starch) in diet
petaloid monocots alismatales alismataceae the water plantain family
“Petaloid” Monocots—Alismatales:Alismataceae(The Water Plantain Family)
  • Widely distributed
  • Aquatic & wetland rhizomatous herbs
  • Number of species: 88 species, 15 genera
  • Flowers: sepals & petals distinct, many apocarpous carpels; flowers or floral axes often whorled
  • Significant features: rhizomatous
  • Special uses: ornamental aquatics
  • Family not required
phylogeny of monocot groups1
Phylogeny of Monocot Groups

Acorales

Alismatales

Liliales

Asparagales

Dioscoreales

Pandanales

Arecales

Poales

Commelinales

Zingiberales

Basal

“Petaloid”

Commelinoid

liliales
Liliales
  • Nectaries at base of tepals
  • Spots on tepals
  • Extrorse anthers
petaloid monocots liliales liliaceae the lily family
“Petaloid” Monocots—Liliales:Liliaceae(The Lily Family)
  • Widely distributed in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere
  • Perennial herbs, usually with bulbs and contractile roots
  • Number of species: ca. 600 species, in 16 genera
  • Flowers: tepals 6, distinct, carpels 3, stamens 6
  • Significant features: Fruit a loculicidal capsule, sometimes a berry; no onion-like odor
  • Special uses: many ornamentals
  • Required taxa: Erythronium, Tulipa
liliaceae
Liliaceae

Erythronium

trout-lily

-bulbs ovate to elongate

-scapose herbs with

2 leaves

(1 if non-flowering)

-tepals 6, spreading to

reflexed

-native wildflowers

slide29

Tulipa

-scapose herbs from tunicate bulbs

-leaves 2-several on a stem

-perianth campanulate to cuplike

-tepals 6, erect

-stigma prominently 3-lobed

liliaceae1
Liliaceae

Economic plants and products (horticultural):

Tulipa

tulip

Lilium

Easter lily

phylogeny of monocot groups2
Phylogeny of Monocot Groups

Acorales

Alismatales

Liliales

Asparagales

Dioscoreales

Pandanales

Arecales

Poales

Commelinales

Zingiberales

Basal

“Petaloid”

Commelinoid

asparagales vs liliales
Asparagales vs. Liliales
  • Herbs to woody;
  • sometimes succulent
  • Tepals not spotted
  • Nectaries septal
  • Style usually 1, simple
  • Seed coat collapsed
  • to + present
  • Phytomelan crust
  • (seeds black) from dry
  • fruits; not in fleshy fruit
  • Herbs; not succulent
  • Tepals often spotted
  • Nectaries at base
  • of tepals/filaments
  • Styles 1 (trifid) or 3
  • Seed coat present
  • No phytomelan crust
  • (seeds not black)
petaloid monocots asparagales alliaceae onion family
“Petaloid” Monocots—Asparagales: Alliaceae(Onion Family)
  • Widely distributed in temperate and tropical regions; also semiarid.
  • Bulb-forming herbs with basal, usually narrow leaves
  • Number of species: ca. 600 species, in 13 genera
  • Flowers: Often showy, tepals 6, stamens 6, 3 connate carpels, ovary superior; inflorescence umbellate; fruit a loculicidal capsule.
  • Significant features: sulfur-containing compounds (onion odor)
  • Special uses: onion, garlic, leek, shallots, chives, used as food & seasonings; ornamentals
  • Required taxa: Allium
alliaceae allium

-scapose herbs with bulbs + contractile roots

-basally clustered leaves

-umbellate inflorescence with bracts

-6 petaloid tepals + 6 stamens

-loculicidal capsule + black seeds

Alliaceae - Allium
alliaceae
Alliaceae

Economic plants and products:

  • Allium species –
  • onions, leeks, garlic!

Ornamentals

petaloid monocots asparagales agavaceae the agave family
“Petaloid” Monocots—Asparagales:Agavaceae(The Agave Family)
  • Warm temperate to tropical regions of the New World; maximum diversity in Mexico
  • Rosette herbs to small trees, often with succulent leaves
  • Number of species: ca. 300 species in 8-13 genera
  • Flowers: tepals 6, stamens 6, carpels 3, fruits a loculicidal capsule
  • Significant features: large, paniculate inflorescence; dimorphic chromosomes
  • Special uses: fiber, tequila, ornamentals.
  • Family not required
slide39

Agave: bat pollinated

Yucca: moth pollinated

agave l vs yucca r
Perianth tubular-funnelform, 6-parted

Stamens exserted beyond the perianth, anthers versatile

Ovary inferior

Capsule loculicidal

Bat-pollinated

Perianth of 6 flat, free tepals

Stamens shorter than the tepals, anthers basifixed

Ovary superior

Fruit indehiscent (berry-like) or septicidal capsule

Moth-pollinated

Agave (L) vs. Yucca (R)
agavaceae hosta
Agavaceae: Hosta

-rhizomatous, scapose perennials

-leaves with a distinct petiole

-perianth tubular-funnelform,

white, bluish or lavender

-stamens 6, epipetalous or hypogynous

-fruit a loculicidal

capsule

asparagales agavaceae
Asparagales: Agavaceae

Economic plants and products:

Agave tequila

asparagales agavaceae1
Asparagales: Agavaceae

Economic plants and products:

  • Fiber for rope from species of Yucca and Agave
  • e.g., sisal hemp
petaloid monocots asparagales amaryllidaceae amaryllis or daffodil family
“Petaloid” Monocots—Asparagales: Amaryllidaceae(Amaryllis or Daffodil Family)
  • Widely distributed in temperate to tropical regions; maximal diversity in South Africa, Andean South America, and the Mediterranean
  • Bulb-forming herbs with contractile roots
  • Number of species: 850 species in 59 genera
  • Flowers: often showy; tepals 6; stamens 6, sometimes adnate to perianth; carpels 3, inferior ovary; fruit usually a loculicidal capsule
  • Significant features: special alkaloid compounds present
  • Special uses: many ornamentals (Narcissus, Hippeastrum)
  • Family not required
amaryllidaceae
Amaryllidaceae

Corona sometimes present

Narcissus

daffodil, jonquil, narcissus

Hymenocallis

spider-lily

slide47

Narcissus

-scapose, perennial herbs from bulbs

-perianth of 6 basally connate tepals,

yellow and/or white

-cuplike to trumpetlike corona present

-stamens 6, epipetalous

amaryllidaceae hippeastrum
Amaryllidaceae: Hippeastrum

-perennial, scapose herbs from large bulbs

-perianth of 6 basally connate tepals, white

to pink to salmon or red

-corona minute

-stamens 6, epipetalous

petaloid monocots asparagales iridaceae the iris family
“Petaloid” Monocots—Asparagales: Iridaceae(The Iris Family)
  • Widespread in tropical and subtropical regions; absent in Australia.
  • Perennial herbs forming rhizomes, corms, or bulbs
  • Number of species: ca. 1,750 species, 67 genera
  • Flowers: radial or bilateral, showy; tepals 6, outer tepals often differentiated from inner; stamens (2) 3, opposite outer tepals; carpels 3, fused into an inferior ovary; fruit a loculicidal capsule
  • Significant features: leaves unifacial or terete, equitant
  • Special uses: many ornamentals; saffron (Crocus sativus)
  • Required taxa: Iris
slide51

Iris

-rhizomatous herbs

-leaves equitant, in a fan

-spathes 2

-style branches broad, petaloid,

terminating in paired crests

anthers appressed to style branches

petaloid monocots asparagales orchidaceae the orchid family
“Petaloid” Monocots—Asparagales: Orchidaceae(The Orchid Family)
  • Widespread throughout the world; maximal diversity in tropical regions
  • Primarily epiphytes; some terrestrial herbs, occasionally vines
  • Diversity: ca. 20,000 species in 700-800 genera
  • Flowers: showy, usually resupinate, bilateral, the median inner tepal differentiated into a labellum (lip); highly modified androecial and gynoecial parts, fused into a column; pollen grouped into soft or hard masses (pollinia) united by a stalk into a pollinarium; ovary inferior; placentation parietal; fruit a capsule dehiscing with (1-)3 or 6 slits; seeds tiny, dust-like
  • Significant features: among the most specialized of all angiosperm flowers
  • Special uses: many ornamentals; Vanilla
  • Required taxa: family only
slide53

Orchid

flower morphology

slide54

Orchidaceae

pollinarium

  • Pollination
  • function of column & pollinia
slide55

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wmgKABRCZpo&feature=related

Richard Dawkins talking about orchid pollination

slide56

Morgan’s Sphinx Moth

Endemic to

Madagascar

slide57

Comet Orchid

(Angraecum

sesquipedale)

asparagales orchidaceae
Asparagales: Orchidaceae

Economic plants and products:

Vanilla flavoring extracted

from immature capsules

of Vanilla planifolia

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