The monocots part 1 overview basal and petaloid groups
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The Monocots: Part 1 Overview, Basal, and “Petaloid” Groups. Spring 2012. Figure 7.1 from the text. Synapomorphies of Monocots. Root system adventitious One cotyledon Stems with scattered vascular bundles ( no secondary growth ); herbaceous

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The Monocots: Part 1 Overview, Basal, and “Petaloid” Groups

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The Monocots: Part 1Overview, Basal, and “Petaloid” Groups

Spring 2012


Figure 7.1 from the text


Synapomorphies of Monocots

  • Root system adventitious

  • One cotyledon

  • Stems with scattered vascular bundles (no secondary growth); herbaceous

  • Leaves parallel-veined with a sheathing base

  • Flowers pentacyclic (5 whorls), trimerous

  • Sieve cell plastids with several cuneate protein crystals

  • Lots of molecular support for monophyly


Additional features of monocots

  • Leaves formed from the basal end of the leaf primordium

  • Usually with monosulcate pollen

  • Lack glandular teeth on leaves


Monocot characters

  • One cotyledon!

MONOCOT

NON-

MONOCOT


Monocot characters

Leaves:

  • parallel venation in most monocots [may be reversals with net-venation!]

  • sheathing base

Trillium

Smilax


Monocot characters

Cuneate protein bodies in sieve cell plastids

  • “wedge-shaped” inclusions

  • function unknown


Monocot characters

Adventitious roots:

-derived from structures other than another root


Monocot characters

Scattered vascular bundles in stem

  • numerous; actually complex organization

  • no vascular cambium (a few weird exceptions)


Monocot characters

  • Pentacyclic, trimerous flowers with 2 perianth whorls and two whorls of stamens


How many monocots?

  • ca. 3,000 genera

  • ca. 65,000 species

  • 22-25% of angiosperms

  • Include:

    • -aroids

    • -bananas

    • -lilies

    • -gingers

    • -orchids (20,000+ spp.)

    • -irises

    • -palms

    • -grasses (10,000 spp.)


Fig. 7.17 from Simpson


Phylogeny of Monocot Groups

Acorales

Alismatales

Liliales

Asparagales

Dioscoreales

Pandanales

Arecales

Poales

Commelinales

Zingiberales

Basal

“Petaloid”

Commelinoid


Basal and “Petaloid” Monocot Groups

Order Acorales

Acoraceae

Order Alismatales

Araceae

Alismataceae

Order Liliales

Liliaceae

Order Asparagales

Agavaceae

Alliaceae

Amaryllidacaee

Iridaceae

Orchidaceae


Basal Monocots:Acorales: Acoraceae

  • Widespread, temperate throughout tropical regions

  • Aquatic herb

  • Diversity: 1-3 spp. in 1 genus (Acorus)

  • Flowers: typical of Araceae, coalesced into a spike-like spadix

  • Significant features: Sister to the rest of the monocots; contain ethereal oils.

  • Special uses: none

  • Family not required, but Acorus evolutionarily important


Acorus (sweet flag)–

The most basal monocot! Aquatic.


“Petaloid” Monocots—Alismatales:Araceae(The Arum Family)

  • Cosmopolitan; greatest diversity in tropical regions

  • Terrestrial and aquatic herbs, vines, epiphytes, floating aquatics

  • Diversity: 3,300 species, 109 genera

  • Flowers: many, small; lacking extensive perianth, carpels 2-3; if unisexual then spatially separated in inflorescence or sometimes plants dioecious

  • Significant features: inflorescence – spadix subtended by a spathe (specialized leaf)

  • Special uses: many ornamentals; Colocasia as food

  • Required taxa: Arisaema, Lemna


Araceae—Arisaema

Arisaema dracontium

green dragon

Arisaema triphyllum

Jack-in-the-pulpit

Arisaema

sikokianum

-spathe margins overlapping below, spathe mostly arched above,

striped or marked

-spadix usually slender and elongate

-flowers unisexual and only at the base of the spadix


Araceae

Philodendron

Monstera


Amorphophallus


Araceae: Lemna and friends

  • Reduced plant body: no stem or leaves;

  • sometimes no roots

  • Rarely flower

Lemna ~ duckweed


Alismatales: Araceae

Economic plants and products:

  • Colocasia esculenta

  • Taro “root” or dasheen

  • “poi”

  • 10% of the world uses asstaple (starch) in diet


“Petaloid” Monocots—Alismatales:Alismataceae(The Water Plantain Family)

  • Widely distributed

  • Aquatic & wetland rhizomatous herbs

  • Number of species: 88 species, 15 genera

  • Flowers: sepals & petals distinct, many apocarpous carpels; flowers or floral axes often whorled

  • Significant features: rhizomatous

  • Special uses: ornamental aquatics

  • Family not required


Phylogeny of Monocot Groups

Acorales

Alismatales

Liliales

Asparagales

Dioscoreales

Pandanales

Arecales

Poales

Commelinales

Zingiberales

Basal

“Petaloid”

Commelinoid


Liliales

  • Nectaries at base of tepals

  • Spots on tepals

  • Extrorse anthers


“Petaloid” Monocots—Liliales:Liliaceae(The Lily Family)

  • Widely distributed in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere

  • Perennial herbs, usually with bulbs and contractile roots

  • Number of species: ca. 600 species, in 16 genera

  • Flowers: tepals 6, distinct, carpels 3, stamens 6

  • Significant features: Fruit a loculicidal capsule, sometimes a berry; no onion-like odor

  • Special uses: many ornamentals

  • Required taxa: Erythronium, Tulipa


Liliaceae - Lilium


Liliaceae

Erythronium

trout-lily

-bulbs ovate to elongate

-scapose herbs with

2 leaves

(1 if non-flowering)

-tepals 6, spreading to

reflexed

-native wildflowers


Tulipa

-scapose herbs from tunicate bulbs

-leaves 2-several on a stem

-perianth campanulate to cuplike

-tepals 6, erect

-stigma prominently 3-lobed


Liliaceae

Economic plants and products (horticultural):

Tulipa

tulip

Lilium

Easter lily


Phylogeny of Monocot Groups

Acorales

Alismatales

Liliales

Asparagales

Dioscoreales

Pandanales

Arecales

Poales

Commelinales

Zingiberales

Basal

“Petaloid”

Commelinoid


Asparagales vs. Liliales

  • Herbs to woody;

  • sometimes succulent

  • Tepals not spotted

  • Nectaries septal

  • Style usually 1, simple

  • Seed coat collapsed

  • to + present

  • Phytomelan crust

  • (seeds black) from dry

  • fruits; not in fleshy fruit

  • Herbs; not succulent

  • Tepals often spotted

  • Nectaries at base

  • of tepals/filaments

  • Styles 1 (trifid) or 3

  • Seed coat present

  • No phytomelan crust

  • (seeds not black)


Figure 7.32 from the text


“Petaloid” Monocots—Asparagales: Alliaceae(Onion Family)

  • Widely distributed in temperate and tropical regions; also semiarid.

  • Bulb-forming herbs with basal, usually narrow leaves

  • Number of species: ca. 600 species, in 13 genera

  • Flowers: Often showy, tepals 6, stamens 6, 3 connate carpels, ovary superior; inflorescence umbellate; fruit a loculicidal capsule.

  • Significant features: sulfur-containing compounds (onion odor)

  • Special uses: onion, garlic, leek, shallots, chives, used as food & seasonings; ornamentals

  • Required taxa: Allium


-scapose herbs with bulbs + contractile roots

-basally clustered leaves

-umbellate inflorescence with bracts

-6 petaloid tepals + 6 stamens

-loculicidal capsule + black seeds

Alliaceae - Allium


Alliaceae

Economic plants and products:

  • Allium species –

  • onions, leeks, garlic!

Ornamentals


“Petaloid” Monocots—Asparagales:Agavaceae(The Agave Family)

  • Warm temperate to tropical regions of the New World; maximum diversity in Mexico

  • Rosette herbs to small trees, often with succulent leaves

  • Number of species: ca. 300 species in 8-13 genera

  • Flowers: tepals 6, stamens 6, carpels 3, fruits a loculicidal capsule

  • Significant features: large, paniculate inflorescence; dimorphic chromosomes

  • Special uses: fiber, tequila, ornamentals.

  • Family not required


Agavaceae – Agave and Yucca

Agave

Yucca


Agave: bat pollinated

Yucca: moth pollinated


Perianth tubular-funnelform, 6-parted

Stamens exserted beyond the perianth, anthers versatile

Ovary inferior

Capsule loculicidal

Bat-pollinated

Perianth of 6 flat, free tepals

Stamens shorter than the tepals, anthers basifixed

Ovary superior

Fruit indehiscent (berry-like) or septicidal capsule

Moth-pollinated

Agave (L) vs. Yucca (R)


Agavaceae: Hosta

-rhizomatous, scapose perennials

-leaves with a distinct petiole

-perianth tubular-funnelform,

white, bluish or lavender

-stamens 6, epipetalous or hypogynous

-fruit a loculicidal

capsule


Asparagales: Agavaceae

Economic plants and products:

Agave tequila


Asparagales: Agavaceae

Economic plants and products:

  • Fiber for rope from species of Yucca and Agave

  • e.g., sisal hemp


“Petaloid” Monocots—Asparagales: Amaryllidaceae(Amaryllis or Daffodil Family)

  • Widely distributed in temperate to tropical regions; maximal diversity in South Africa, Andean South America, and the Mediterranean

  • Bulb-forming herbs with contractile roots

  • Number of species: 850 species in 59 genera

  • Flowers: often showy; tepals 6; stamens 6, sometimes adnate to perianth; carpels 3, inferior ovary; fruit usually a loculicidal capsule

  • Significant features: special alkaloid compounds present

  • Special uses: many ornamentals (Narcissus, Hippeastrum)

  • Family not required


Amaryllidaceae diversity


Amaryllidaceae

Corona sometimes present

Narcissus

daffodil, jonquil, narcissus

Hymenocallis

spider-lily


Narcissus

-scapose, perennial herbs from bulbs

-perianth of 6 basally connate tepals,

yellow and/or white

-cuplike to trumpetlike corona present

-stamens 6, epipetalous


Amaryllidaceae: Hippeastrum

-perennial, scapose herbs from large bulbs

-perianth of 6 basally connate tepals, white

to pink to salmon or red

-corona minute

-stamens 6, epipetalous


“Petaloid” Monocots—Asparagales: Iridaceae(The Iris Family)

  • Widespread in tropical and subtropical regions; absent in Australia.

  • Perennial herbs forming rhizomes, corms, or bulbs

  • Number of species: ca. 1,750 species, 67 genera

  • Flowers: radial or bilateral, showy; tepals 6, outer tepals often differentiated from inner; stamens (2) 3, opposite outer tepals; carpels 3, fused into an inferior ovary; fruit a loculicidal capsule

  • Significant features: leaves unifacial or terete, equitant

  • Special uses: many ornamentals; saffron (Crocus sativus)

  • Required taxa: Iris


Iridaceae diversity


Iris

-rhizomatous herbs

-leaves equitant, in a fan

-spathes 2

-style branches broad, petaloid,

terminating in paired crests

anthers appressed to style branches


“Petaloid” Monocots—Asparagales: Orchidaceae(The Orchid Family)

  • Widespread throughout the world; maximal diversity in tropical regions

  • Primarily epiphytes; some terrestrial herbs, occasionally vines

  • Diversity: ca. 20,000 species in 700-800 genera

  • Flowers: showy, usually resupinate, bilateral, the median inner tepal differentiated into a labellum (lip); highly modified androecial and gynoecial parts, fused into a column; pollen grouped into soft or hard masses (pollinia) united by a stalk into a pollinarium; ovary inferior; placentation parietal; fruit a capsule dehiscing with (1-)3 or 6 slits; seeds tiny, dust-like

  • Significant features: among the most specialized of all angiosperm flowers

  • Special uses: many ornamentals; Vanilla

  • Required taxa: family only


Orchid

flower morphology


Orchidaceae

pollinarium

  • Pollination

  • function of column & pollinia


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wmgKABRCZpo&feature=related

Richard Dawkins talking about orchid pollination


Morgan’s Sphinx Moth

Endemic to

Madagascar


Comet Orchid

(Angraecum

sesquipedale)


Asparagales: Orchidaceae

Economic plants and products:

Vanilla flavoring extracted

from immature capsules

of Vanilla planifolia


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