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Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world, because there ’ s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams. www.despair.com. 1650. 1660. 1640. 1690. 1670. 1680. 1700. London Fire (1666). Eng. Civ. Wars end (1648). England. Stuart monarchy restored

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Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world,

because there’s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams.

www.despair.com


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

1650

1660

1640

1690

1670

1680

1700

London

Fire

(1666)

Eng. Civ. Wars end

(1648)

England

Stuart

monarchy

restored

(1661)

Plague

hits

London

(1665)

Glorious

Revolution

(1688)

Eng. Civ. Wars begin

(1642)

Cromwell’s

dictatorship

(1649-58)

James II

Begins reign

(1685)

War of League

of Augsburg

(1688-97)

3rd Anglo- Dutch

Naval War

(1672-4)

2nd Anglo-Dutch

Naval War

(1665-7)

1st Anglo Dutch-

Naval War

(1652-4)

Dutch Republic

William III

Marries Mary

Stuart (1674)

War of Sp.

Succession

(1700-13)

Dutch indep.

(1648)

France

30 Yrs. War ends (1648)

Mazarin dies &

Louis XIV begins

his active reign

(1661)

War of League

of Augsburg

(1688-97)

Louis XIII dies

& Mazarin’s

Regency begins

(1643)

Louis XIV

dies

(1715)

Louis XIV revokes

Edict of Nantes

(1685)

Dutch War

1672-8)

Fronde (1648-53)

N. War b/w

Sweden, Prussia

& Poland

(1655-60)

Fred-Wm The

Great Elector

Starts his reign

(1640)

War of Sp.

Succession

(1700-13)

Prussia

Fred-Wm the

Great Elector

Dies (1688)

Austria

30 Yrs.

War ends

(1648)

War of League

of Augsburg

(1688-97)

Turks besiege

Vienna -> start of

War of Holy League vs. Turks (1683)

Peter the

Great dies

(1725)

War of Holy League ends (1699)

Russia

“Time of

Troubles”

(1598-1614)

Great N.War

vs. Sweden

(1700-21)

Peter I’s

Great Embassy

(1697)


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

FC. 90 THE RESURGENCE OF HAPSBURG AUSTRIA (c.1650-1800)

Aggressive foreign policy by Louis XIV of France (FC.95)

Decline of Ottoman Empire (FC.49)

Defeat in 30 Yrs War (FC.88)

Hapsburgs concentrate vs. the Ottoman Empire, although they are constantly diverted by French aggression in Germany

Turkish invasion & siege of Vienna (1683) is decisively defeated by relief army under Polish king Jan Sobieski

War of the Holy League (Pope, Austria, Venice, Poland, & Russia)  Turkish forces are crushed at Zenta (1697)

Treaty of Karlowitz (1699) Austria gains Slavonia, Transylvania, & rest of Hungary, making it a great power once again

Severe long-range problems for the Hapsburgs:

Powerful nobles who oppress the serfs & threaten Hapsb. power

Many different ethnic groups & cultures dividing the empire

Different states with different constitutional rights & obligations

Hapsburgs try to unify them by imposing Ger. lang. & Catholic religion on their subjects

Hapsburgs rule each state separately to prevent different provinces from uniting to revolt

Hapsburgs let nobles continue to oppress serfs as long as they don’t interfere with Hapsburg policies

Rising resentment by the various ethnic groups who want freedom from Austria

Backward social structure & agric. econ. Austria lags progressively further behind W. Europe

Helped prevent revolts, but also kept Hapsburgs from uniting & ruling their empire effectively

Competition from W. Eur. (FC.89)

Geopolitics of E. Europe (FC.89)

Economic stagnation & ethnic unrest which get esp. serious in 1800s (FC.118)


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

FC. 90 THE RESURGENCE OF HAPSBURG AUSTRIA (c.1650-1800)

Severe long-range problems for the Hapsburgs:

Hapsburgs concentrate vs. the Ottoman Empire, although they are constantly diverted by French aggression in Germany

Hapsburgs let nobles oppress serfs as long as they don’t interfere with Hapsburg policies  Backward ec. & soc. structure

Powerful nobles who oppress the serfs & threaten Hapsb. power

Different states with different constitutional rights & obligations

Many different ethnic groups & cultures dividing the empire

Hapsburgs try to unify them by imposing Ger. lang. & Catholic religion on their subjects Growing resentment

Hapsburgs rule each state separately to prevent different provinces from uniting to revolt  Disunified empire

After defeat of Turks at siege of Vienna, Austria forms Holy League  Defeat Turks& take much of SE Eur.

Aggressive foreign policy by Louis XIV of France (FC.95)

Decline of Ottoman Empire (FC.49)

Defeat in 30 Yrs War (FC.88)

Economic stagnation & ethnic unrest which get esp. serious in 1800s (FC.118)


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

FC. 90 THE RESURGENCE OF HAPSBURG AUSTRIA (c.1650-1800)

Ottoman Empire at this time?


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

FC.49 THE DECLINE OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE (c.1565-1918)

  • Ottoman Decline after 1565

  • Turkey: poor sultans, undisc.

  • army, backward milit. tech.,

  • inflation, rev's

  • Hungary the battleground

  • w/stable frontier of fort's

Influx of silver & gold from Americas

Janissaries get soft & lazy

Ottomans fail to keep up with new fortress & military technology & revival of Roman drill & march being used in Eur.

No major provinces or sources of revenue added after Suleiman I’s death in 1565

Emp. too big to launch wars across far flung frontiers

Rapid Inflation

Empire starts to experience problems:

Ottomans lose monopoly on spice trade

Lose revenues

Econ. decline of Ottoman Emp.

Military & econ. decline of Turkish feudal cavalry who relied for survival on plunder from new conquests

Steady political & economic decay of the Ottoman Empire until its demise in 1919 after World War I

Revolts  Empire further disrupted

Sultans get soft & lazy

Ottomans dominate Mid-East & E. Mediterranean by 1565 (FC.48)

Spanish Emp. In Americas (FC.80)

Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia (FC.81)

Major milit. defeats vs. Austria in1600s (FC.91)

Eventual emergence of modern Arab nations (FC.144)

Foundation of modern Turkey by Kemal Atatturk in 1921 (FC.128)

Influx of Jewish settlers after WWII  Found israel in 1948 (FC.144)


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

FC. 90 THE RESURGENCE OF HAPSBURG AUSTRIA (c.1650-1800)

  • Ottoman Decline after 1565

  • Turkey: poor sultans, undisc.

  • army, backward milit. tech.,

  • inflation, rev's

  • Hungary the battleground

  • w/stable frontier of fort's

  •  No new conquests & very

  • expensive

Condition of Hapsburg Austria in 1650s?


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

FC. 90 THE RESURGENCE OF HAPSBURG AUSTRIA (c.1650-1800)

  • Ottoman Decline after 1565

  • Turkey: poor sultans, undisc.

  • army, backward milit. tech.,

  • inflation, rev's

  • Hungary the battleground

  • w/stable frontier of fort's

  •  No new conquests & very

  • expensive

Defeat in 30 Yrs War (FC.88)

Aggressive neighbor to the east?


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

FC. 90 THE RESURGENCE OF HAPSBURG AUSTRIA (c.1650-1800)

Defeat in 30 Yrs War (FC.88)

Shape of Ottoman Empire?


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

FC.49 THE DECLINE OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE (c.1565-1918)

Ottomans dominate Mid-East & E. Mediterranean by 1565 (FC.48)

Empire starts to experience problems:

Sultans get soft & lazy

Emp. too big to launch wars across far flung frontiers

Janissaries get soft & lazy

Spanish Emp. In Americas (FC.81)

Portuguese Emp. in SE Asia (FC.82)

No major provinces or sources of revenue added after Suleiman I’s death in 1565

Influx of silver & gold from Americas

Ottomans lose monopoly on spice trade

Rapid Inflation

Lose revenues

Econ. decline of Ottoman Emp.

Military & econ. decline of Turkish feudal cavalry who relied for survival on plunder from new conquests  Revolts

Ottomans fail to keep up with new fortress & military technology & revival of Roman drill & march being used in Eur.

Major milit. defeats vs. Austria in1600s (FC.90)

Steady political & economic decay of the Ottoman Empire until its demise in 1919 after World War I

Eventual emergence of modern Arab nations (FC.128)

Foundation of modern Turkey by Kemal Atatturk in 1921 (FC.128)

Influx of Jewish settlers after WWII  Found israel in 1948 (FC.146.1)


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

FC. 90 THE RESURGENCE OF HAPSBURG AUSTRIA (c.1650-1800)

  • Ottoman Decline after 1565

  • Turkey: poor sultans, undisc.

  • army, backward milit. tech.,

  • inflation, rev's

  • Hungary the battleground

  • w/stable frontier of fort's

Decline of Ottoman Empire (FC.49)

Defeat in 30 Yrs War (FC.88)

Problems a stable frontier presented the Ottomans?


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

FC. 90 THE RESURGENCE OF HAPSBURG AUSTRIA (c.1650-1800)

  • Ottoman Decline after 1565

  • Turkey: poor sultans, undisc.

  • army, backward milit. tech.,

  • inflation, rev's

  • Hungary the battleground

  • w/stable frontier of fort's

  •  No new conquests & very

  • expensive

  • 1656- Energetic viziers, Koprulus

  •  Renewed Ottoman aggression

Hapsburg policy after 1650?

Decline of Ottoman Empire (FC.49)

Defeat in 30 Yrs War (FC.88)


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

FC. 90 THE RESURGENCE OF HAPSBURG AUSTRIA (c.1650-1800)

  • Ottoman Decline after 1565

  • Turkey: poor sultans, undisc.

  • army, backward milit. tech.,

  • inflation, rev's

  • Hungary the battleground

  • w/stable frontier of fort's

  •  No new conquests & very

  • expensive

  • 1656- Energetic viziers, Koprulus

  •  Renewed Ottoman aggression

Hapsburgs concentrate vs. Ottoman Empire

What diverted them?

Decline of Ottoman Empire (FC.49)

Defeat in 30 Yrs War (FC.88)

Hapsburgs concentrate vs. the Ottoman Empire, although they are constantly diverted by French aggression in Germany


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

FC. 90 THE RESURGENCE OF HAPSBURG AUSTRIA (c.1650-1800)

  • Ottoman Decline after 1565

  • Turkey: poor sultans, undisc.

  • army, backward milit. tech.,

  • inflation, rev's

  • Hungary the battleground

  • w/stable frontier of fort's

  •  No new conquests & very

  • expensive

  • 1656- Energetic viziers, Koprulus

  •  Renewed Ottoman aggression

Aggressive foreign policy by Louis XIV of France (FC.95)

Decline of Ottoman Empire (FC.49)

Defeat in 30 Yrs War (FC.88)

Hapsburgs concentrate vs. the Ottoman Empire, although they are constantly diverted by French aggression in Germany

Hapsburg Emperor?


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

FC. 90 THE RESURGENCE OF HAPSBURG AUSTRIA (c.1650-1800)

  • Ottoman Decline after 1565

  • Turkey: poor sultans, undisc.

  • army, backward milit. tech.,

  • inflation, rev's

  • Hungary the battleground

  • w/stable frontier of fort's

  •  No new conquests & very

  • expensive

  • 1656- Energetic viziers, Koprulus

  •  Renewed Ottoman aggression

  • Leopold I (1657-1705)

Aggressive foreign policy by Louis XIV of France (FC.95)

Decline of Ottoman Empire (FC.49)

Defeat in 30 Yrs War (FC.88)

Hapsburgs concentrate vs. the Ottoman Empire, although they are constantly diverted by French aggression in Germany


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

A coin of Leopold I dated 1677, showing Leopold with the distinctive Hapsburg chin on the obverse and the double headed eagle, symbol of the house of Hapsburg, on the reverse


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

FC. 90 THE RESURGENCE OF HAPSBURG AUSTRIA (c.1650-1800)

  • Ottoman Decline after 1565

  • Turkey: poor sultans, undisc.

  • army, backward milit. tech.,

  • inflation, rev's

  • Hungary the battleground

  • w/stable frontier of fort's

  •  No new conquests & very

  • expensive

  • 1656- Energetic viziers, Koprulus

  •  Renewed Ottoman aggression

  • Leopold I (1657-1705)

  • - Trained by Jesuits

  •  Diligent, but also intolerant

Aggressive foreign policy by Louis XIV of France (FC.95)

Decline of Ottoman Empire (FC.49)

Defeat in 30 Yrs War (FC.88)

Hapsburgs concentrate vs. the Ottoman Empire, although they are constantly diverted by French aggression in Germany

One advantage he had?


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

FC. 90 THE RESURGENCE OF HAPSBURG AUSTRIA (c.1650-1800)

  • Ottoman Decline after 1565

  • Turkey: poor sultans, undisc.

  • army, backward milit. tech.,

  • inflation, rev's

  • Hungary the battleground

  • w/stable frontier of fort's

  •  No new conquests & very

  • expensive

  • 1656- Energetic viziers, Koprulus

  •  Renewed Ottoman aggression

  • Leopold I (1657-1705)

  • - Trained by Jesuits

  •  Diligent, but also intolerant

  • Served ably by such foreign

  • gen’ls as Eugene of Savoy &

  • Piccolomini

Aggressive foreign policy by Louis XIV of France (FC.95)

Decline of Ottoman Empire (FC.49)

Defeat in 30 Yrs War (FC.88)

Hapsburgs concentrate vs. the Ottoman Empire, although they are constantly diverted by French aggression in Germany


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

Piccolomini & Prince Eugene of Savoy, two of Leopold’s ablest generals.


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

Raimund Fürst Montecuccoli,(left) the general who caught and defeated the Turks at the battle of the Raba River in 1664. The tighter control Leopold exerted over Hungary after this battle upset a number of Hungarian nobles who, led by Emmerich Imre Thököly von Késmark (below), rebelled against Hapsburg rule in 1678 and called in the Turks. This eventually led to the Turkish invasion and siege of Vienna in 1683.


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

FC. 90 THE RESURGENCE OF HAPSBURG AUSTRIA (c.1650-1800)

  • Ottoman Decline after 1565

  • Turkey: poor sultans, undisc.

  • army, backward milit. tech.,

  • inflation, rev's

  • Hungary the battleground

  • w/stable frontier of fort's

  •  No new conquests & very

  • expensive

  • 1656- Energetic viziers, Koprulus

  •  Renewed Ottoman aggression

  • Leopold I (1657-1705)

  • - Trained by Jesuits

  •  Diligent, but also intolerant

  • Served ably by such foreign

  • gen’ls as Eugene of Savoy &

  • Piccolomini

Aggressive foreign policy by Louis XIV of France (FC.95)

Decline of Ottoman Empire (FC.49)

Defeat in 30 Yrs War (FC.88)

Hapsburgs concentrate vs. the Ottoman Empire, although they are constantly diverted by French aggression in Germany

Turkish invasion & siege of Vienna (1683) is decisively defeated by relief army under Polish king Jan Sobieski


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

Tatar invaders moving with their prisoners across a river


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

Anti-Turkish propaganda, such as this 17th century print, played up (and exaggerated) the atrocities committed by the Turks.

Below horsetail badges denoting the rank of a Turkish soldier


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

An overview of how Vienna probably looked in the 1600s


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

Since the Turks brought no heavy siege artillery, they had to rely on undermining Vienna’s walls by digging a system of trenches that snaked their way up to the city.


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

On September 2-3, the Turks breached the Burg ravelin. On September 9, their miners demolished one face of the Lowell Bastion, setting the stage for one final assault. However, three days later, Jan Sobieski’s army relieved the city before they could exploit this breach.

Lowell Bastion


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

The final defeat of the Turks at Vienna by the relief army led by the Polish king, Jan Sobieski (right).


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

Charge of the Polish winged hussars at Vienna (1683). They suffered such heavy losses from Janissary gunfire that they were disbanded soon afterwards.


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

A short history of pastries

After the siege, Viennese bakers celebrated their victory by concocting a new crescent-shaped roll, the croissant, to mock the crescent moon on the Turkish flag. Thus two sieges of Vienna (in 1529 and 1683) combined to give us coffee and croissants, a good tasting part of a nutritious (if fictional) breakfast.


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

The history of pastries didn’t start there, however. In the middle ages, “waffles of forgiveness” were sold outside of churches. In Paris, certainly one of the spiritual homes of pastries, bakers, in order to keep them on the job, weren’t supposed to wear pants six days a week, although it was probably more to ensure the supply of bread rather than bon bons.

Notice how the French baker below hides his shame behind a basket of croissants.


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

When the Spanish first encountered chocolate in the New World, they kept it so secret that when Dutch pirates captured a Spanish ship, they dumped its cargo of cacao beans, thinking they were sheep droppings.


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

FC. 90 THE RESURGENCE OF HAPSBURG AUSTRIA (c.1650-1800)

  • Ottoman Decline after 1565

  • Turkey: poor sultans, undisc.

  • army, backward milit. tech.,

  • inflation, rev's

  • Hungary the battleground

  • w/stable frontier of fort's

  •  No new conquests & very

  • expensive

  • 1656- Energetic viziers, Koprulus

  •  Renewed Ottoman aggression

  • Leopold I (1657-1705)

  • - Trained by Jesuits

  •  Diligent, but also intolerant

  • Served ably by such foreign

  • gen’ls as Eugene of Savoy &

  • Piccolomini

  • ********

Aggressive foreign policy by Louis XIV of France (FC.95)

Decline of Ottoman Empire (FC.49)

Defeat in 30 Yrs War (FC.88)

Hapsburgs concentrate vs. the Ottoman Empire, although they are constantly diverted by French aggression in Germany

Turkish invasion & siege of Vienna (1683) is decisively defeated by relief army under Polish king Jan Sobieski


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

FC. 90 THE RESURGENCE OF HAPSBURG AUSTRIA (c.1650-1800)

  • Ottoman Decline after 1565

  • Turkey: poor sultans, undisc.

  • army, backward milit. tech.,

  • inflation, rev's

  • Hungary the battleground

  • w/stable frontier of fort's

  •  No new conquests & very

  • expensive

  • 1656- Energetic viziers, Koprulus

  •  Renewed Ottoman aggression

  • Leopold I (1657-1705)

  • - Trained by Jesuits

  •  Diligent, but also intolerant

  • Served ably by such foreign

  • gen’ls as Eugene of Savoy &

  • Piccolomini

Aggressive foreign policy by Louis XIV of France (FC.95)

Decline of Ottoman Empire (FC.49)

Defeat in 30 Yrs War (FC.88)

Hapsburgs concentrate vs. the Ottoman Empire, although they are constantly diverted by French aggression in Germany

Turkish invasion & siege of Vienna (1683) is decisively defeated by relief army under Polish king Jan Sobieski

War of the Holy League (Pope, Austria, Venice, Poland, & Russia)  Turkish forces are crushed at Zenta (1697)


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

In 1687, while besieging the city, a Venetian shell hit the Parthenon, which the Turks were using to store their gunpowder. the resulting explosion was responsible for most of the damage the Parthenon has sustained in its long history.

The reason they were using the Parthenon was that, a few years before, they had stored their gunpowder in a nearby building on the Acropolis, the Propylaea, until lightning hit it and detonated their suupply. Therefore, they moved their explosives to slightly higher ground.


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

On September 9, 1697 the Imperial Army led by Prince Eugène caught an Ottoman army, led by Sultan Mustafa II, as it was crossing the Tisza River on a pontoon bridge. The Turks suffered a devastating defeat, 25,000 of them supposedly being killed or drowned, compared to only 430 dead and 1,600 wounded Austrian soldiers.


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

In Skladanie’s Surrender of the Standards Jan Sobieski accepts the surrender of Turkish standards during the War of the Holy League


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

FC. 90 THE RESURGENCE OF HAPSBURG AUSTRIA (c.1650-1800)

  • Ottoman Decline after 1565

  • Turkey: poor sultans, undisc.

  • army, backward milit. tech.,

  • inflation, rev's

  • Hungary the battleground

  • w/stable frontier of fort's

  •  No new conquests & very

  • expensive

  • 1656- Energetic viziers, Koprulus

  •  Renewed Ottoman aggression

  • Leopold I (1657-1705)

  • - Trained by Jesuits

  •  Diligent, but also intolerant

  • Served ably by such foreign

  • gen’ls as Eugene of Savoy &

  • Piccolomini

Aggressive foreign policy by Louis XIV of France (FC.95)

Decline of Ottoman Empire (FC.49)

Defeat in 30 Yrs War (FC.88)

Hapsburgs concentrate vs. the Ottoman Empire, although they are constantly diverted by French aggression in Germany

Turkish invasion & siege of Vienna (1683) is decisively defeated by relief army under Polish king Jan Sobieski

War of the Holy League (Pope, Austria, Venice, Poland, & Russia)  Turkish forces are crushed at Zenta (1697)

Treaty & Terms?


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

FC. 90 THE RESURGENCE OF HAPSBURG AUSTRIA (c.1650-1800)

  • Ottoman Decline after 1565

  • Turkey: poor sultans, undisc.

  • army, backward milit. tech.,

  • inflation, rev's

  • Hungary the battleground

  • w/stable frontier of fort's

  •  No new conquests & very

  • expensive

  • 1656- Energetic viziers, Koprulus

  •  Renewed Ottoman aggression

  • Leopold I (1657-1705)

  • - Trained by Jesuits

  •  Diligent, but also intolerant

  • Served ably by such foreign

  • gen’ls as Eugene of Savoy &

  • Piccolomini

Aggressive foreign policy by Louis XIV of France (FC.95)

Decline of Ottoman Empire (FC.49)

Defeat in 30 Yrs War (FC.88)

Hapsburgs concentrate vs. the Ottoman Empire, although they are constantly diverted by French aggression in Germany

Turkish invasion & siege of Vienna (1683) is decisively defeated by relief army under Polish king Jan Sobieski

War of the Holy League (Pope, Austria, Venice, Poland, & Russia)  Turkish forces are crushed at Zenta (1697)

Treaty of Karlowitz (1699) Austria gains Slavonia, Transylvania, & rest of Hungary, making it a great power once again


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

In 1825, after generations of Janissaries making themselves trouble for the Ottomans, the sultan had his army surround and kill the Janissaries in the cisterns below Istanbul.


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

FC. 90 THE RESURGENCE OF HAPSBURG AUSTRIA (c.1650-1800)

  • Ottoman Decline after 1565

  • Turkey: poor sultans, undisc.

  • army, backward milit. tech.,

  • inflation, rev's

  • Hungary the battleground

  • w/stable frontier of fort's

  •  No new conquests & very

  • expensive

  • 1656- Energetic viziers, Koprulus

  •  Renewed Ottoman aggression

  • Leopold I (1657-1705)

  • - Trained by Jesuits

  •  Diligent, but also intolerant

  • Served ably by such foreign

  • gen’ls as Eugene of Savoy &

  • Piccolomini

Social structure?

Aggressive foreign policy by Louis XIV of France (FC.95)

Decline of Ottoman Empire (FC.49)

Defeat in 30 Yrs War (FC.88)

Hapsburgs concentrate vs. the Ottoman Empire, although they are constantly diverted by French aggression in Germany

Turkish invasion & siege of Vienna (1683) is decisively defeated by relief army under Polish king Jan Sobieski

War of the Holy League (Pope, Austria, Venice, Poland, & Russia)  Turkish forces are crushed at Zenta (1697)

Treaty of Karlowitz (1699) Austria gains Slavonia, Transylvania, & rest of Hungary, making it a great power once again

Severe long-range problems for the Hapsburgs:

Powerful nobles who oppress the serfs & threaten Hapsb. power

Many different ethnic groups & cultures dividing the empire

Different states with different constitutional rights & obligations


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

FC. 90 THE RESURGENCE OF HAPSBURG AUSTRIA (c.1650-1800)

  • Ottoman Decline after 1565

  • Turkey: poor sultans, undisc.

  • army, backward milit. tech.,

  • inflation, rev's

  • Hungary the battleground

  • w/stable frontier of fort's

  •  No new conquests & very

  • expensive

  • 1656- Energetic viziers, Koprulus

  •  Renewed Ottoman aggression

  • Leopold I (1657-1705)

  • - Trained by Jesuits

  •  Diligent, but also intolerant

  • Served ably by such foreign

  • gen’ls as Eugene of Savoy &

  • Piccolomini

Cultural & ethnic unity?

Aggressive foreign policy by Louis XIV of France (FC.95)

Decline of Ottoman Empire (FC.49)

Defeat in 30 Yrs War (FC.88)

Hapsburgs concentrate vs. the Ottoman Empire, although they are constantly diverted by French aggression in Germany

Turkish invasion & siege of Vienna (1683) is decisively defeated by relief army under Polish king Jan Sobieski

War of the Holy League (Pope, Austria, Venice, Poland, & Russia)  Turkish forces are crushed at Zenta (1697)

Treaty of Karlowitz (1699) Austria gains Slavonia, Transylvania, & rest of Hungary, making it a great power once again

Severe long-range problems for the Hapsburgs:

Powerful nobles who oppress the serfs & threaten Hapsb. power

Many different ethnic groups & cultures dividing the empire

Different states with different constitutional rights & obligations


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

FC. 90 THE RESURGENCE OF HAPSBURG AUSTRIA (c.1650-1800)

  • Ottoman Decline after 1565

  • Turkey: poor sultans, undisc.

  • army, backward milit. tech.,

  • inflation, rev's

  • Hungary the battleground

  • w/stable frontier of fort's

  •  No new conquests & very

  • expensive

  • 1656- Energetic viziers, Koprulus

  •  Renewed Ottoman aggression

  • Leopold I (1657-1705)

  • - Trained by Jesuits

  •  Diligent, but also intolerant

  • Served ably by such foreign

  • gen’ls as Eugene of Savoy &

  • Piccolomini

Administrative unity?

Aggressive foreign policy by Louis XIV of France (FC.95)

Decline of Ottoman Empire (FC.49)

Defeat in 30 Yrs War (FC.88)

Hapsburgs concentrate vs. the Ottoman Empire, although they are constantly diverted by French aggression in Germany

Turkish invasion & siege of Vienna (1683) is decisively defeated by relief army under Polish king Jan Sobieski

War of the Holy League (Pope, Austria, Venice, Poland, & Russia)  Turkish forces are crushed at Zenta (1697)

Treaty of Karlowitz (1699) Austria gains Slavonia, Transylvania, & rest of Hungary, making it a great power once again

Severe long-range problems for the Hapsburgs:

Powerful nobles who oppress the serfs & threaten Hapsb. power

Many different ethnic groups & cultures dividing the empire

Different states with different constitutional rights & obligations


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

FC. 90 THE RESURGENCE OF HAPSBURG AUSTRIA (c.1650-1800)

  • Ottoman Decline after 1565

  • Turkey: poor sultans, undisc.

  • army, backward milit. tech.,

  • inflation, rev's

  • Hungary the battleground

  • w/stable frontier of fort's

  •  No new conquests & very

  • expensive

  • 1656- Energetic viziers, Koprulus

  •  Renewed Ottoman aggression

  • Leopold I (1657-1705)

  • - Trained by Jesuits

  •  Diligent, but also intolerant

  • Served ably by such foreign

  • gen’ls as Eugene of Savoy &

  • Piccolomini

Aggressive foreign policy by Louis XIV of France (FC.95)

Decline of Ottoman Empire (FC.49)

Defeat in 30 Yrs War (FC.88)

Hapsburgs concentrate vs. the Ottoman Empire, although they are constantly diverted by French aggression in Germany

Turkish invasion & siege of Vienna (1683) is decisively defeated by relief army under Polish king Jan Sobieski

War of the Holy League (Pope, Austria, Venice, Poland, & Russia)  Turkish forces are crushed at Zenta (1697)

Treaty of Karlowitz (1699) Austria gains Slavonia, Transylvania, & rest of Hungary, making it a great power once again

Severe long-range problems for the Hapsburgs:

Powerful nobles who oppress the serfs & threaten Hapsb. power

Many different ethnic groups & cultures dividing the empire

Different states with different constitutional rights & obligations


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

The full title of the Hapsburg ruler, Joseph II (1780-90)

Roman Emperor, Apostolic King of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Galicia, Lodomeria, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, of Styria, of Carinthia, and of Carniola, Grand Prince of Transylvania, Margrave of Moravia, Duke of Brabant, of Limburg, of Luxemburg, of Geldern, of Wurtemberg, of Upper and Lower Silesia, of Milan, of Mantua, of Parma, of Piacenza, of Guastalla, of Auschwitz and Zator; Prince of Swabia, Prince-Count of Habsburg, Flanders, the Tyrol, of Hennegau, of Kyburg, of Gorz and Gradisca, Margrave of the Holy Roman Empire, of Burgau, of Upper and Lower Lusatia, Count of Namur, Lord of the Windisch March and of Mecheln; Duke of Lorraine and Bar; Grand Duke of Tuscany


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

FC. 90 THE RESURGENCE OF HAPSBURG AUSTRIA (c.1650-1800)

  • Ottoman Decline after 1565

  • Turkey: poor sultans, undisc.

  • army, backward milit. tech.,

  • inflation, rev's

  • Hungary the battleground

  • w/stable frontier of fort's

  •  No new conquests & very

  • expensive

  • 1656- Energetic viziers, Koprulus

  •  Renewed Ottoman aggression

  • Leopold I (1657-1705)

  • - Trained by Jesuits

  •  Diligent, but also intolerant

  • Served ably by such foreign

  • gen’ls as Eugene of Savoy &

  • Piccolomini

Policy toward nobles?

Aggressive foreign policy by Louis XIV of France (FC.95)

Decline of Ottoman Empire (FC.49)

Defeat in 30 Yrs War (FC.88)

Hapsburgs concentrate vs. the Ottoman Empire, although they are constantly diverted by French aggression in Germany

Turkish invasion & siege of Vienna (1683) is decisively defeated by relief army under Polish king Jan Sobieski

War of the Holy League (Pope, Austria, Venice, Poland, & Russia)  Turkish forces are crushed at Zenta (1697)

Treaty of Karlowitz (1699) Austria gains Slavonia, Transylvania, & rest of Hungary, making it a great power once again

Severe long-range problems for the Hapsburgs:

Powerful nobles who oppress the serfs & threaten Hapsb. power

Many different ethnic groups & cultures dividing the empire

Different states with different constitutional rights & obligations

Hapsburgs let nobles continue to oppress serfs as long as they don’t interfere with Hapsburg policies


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

FC. 90 THE RESURGENCE OF HAPSBURG AUSTRIA (c.1650-1800)

  • Ottoman Decline after 1565

  • Turkey: poor sultans, undisc.

  • army, backward milit. tech.,

  • inflation, rev's

  • Hungary the battleground

  • w/stable frontier of fort's

  •  No new conquests & very

  • expensive

  • 1656- Energetic viziers, Koprulus

  •  Renewed Ottoman aggression

  • Leopold I (1657-1705)

  • - Trained by Jesuits

  •  Diligent, but also intolerant

  • Served ably by such foreign

  • gen’ls as Eugene of Savoy &

  • Piccolomini

Social & economic effects?

Aggressive foreign policy by Louis XIV of France (FC.95)

Decline of Ottoman Empire (FC.49)

Defeat in 30 Yrs War (FC.88)

Hapsburgs concentrate vs. the Ottoman Empire, although they are constantly diverted by French aggression in Germany

Turkish invasion & siege of Vienna (1683) is decisively defeated by relief army under Polish king Jan Sobieski

War of the Holy League (Pope, Austria, Venice, Poland, & Russia)  Turkish forces are crushed at Zenta (1697)

Treaty of Karlowitz (1699) Austria gains Slavonia, Transylvania, & rest of Hungary, making it a great power once again

Severe long-range problems for the Hapsburgs:

Powerful nobles who oppress the serfs & threaten Hapsb. power

Many different ethnic groups & cultures dividing the empire

Different states with different constitutional rights & obligations

Hapsburgs let nobles continue to oppress serfs as long as they don’t interfere with Hapsburg policies

Backward social structure & agric. econ. Austria lags progressively further behind W. Europe


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

FC. 90 THE RESURGENCE OF HAPSBURG AUSTRIA (c.1650-1800)

  • Ottoman Decline after 1565

  • Turkey: poor sultans, undisc.

  • army, backward milit. tech.,

  • inflation, rev's

  • Hungary the battleground

  • w/stable frontier of fort's

  •  No new conquests & very

  • expensive

  • 1656- Energetic viziers, Koprulus

  •  Renewed Ottoman aggression

  • Leopold I (1657-1705)

  • - Trained by Jesuits

  •  Diligent, but also intolerant

  • Served ably by such foreign

  • gen’ls as Eugene of Savoy &

  • Piccolomini

Policy toward diff. cultures, etc.?

Aggressive foreign policy by Louis XIV of France (FC.95)

Decline of Ottoman Empire (FC.49)

Defeat in 30 Yrs War (FC.88)

Hapsburgs concentrate vs. the Ottoman Empire, although they are constantly diverted by French aggression in Germany

Turkish invasion & siege of Vienna (1683) is decisively defeated by relief army under Polish king Jan Sobieski

War of the Holy League (Pope, Austria, Venice, Poland, & Russia)  Turkish forces are crushed at Zenta (1697)

Treaty of Karlowitz (1699) Austria gains Slavonia, Transylvania, & rest of Hungary, making it a great power once again

Severe long-range problems for the Hapsburgs:

Powerful nobles who oppress the serfs & threaten Hapsb. power

Many different ethnic groups & cultures dividing the empire

Different states with different constitutional rights & obligations

Hapsburgs try to unify them by imposing Ger. lang. & Catholic religion on their subjects

Hapsburgs let nobles continue to oppress serfs as long as they don’t interfere with Hapsburg policies

Backward social structure & agric. econ. Austria lags progressively further behind W. Europe


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

FC. 90 THE RESURGENCE OF HAPSBURG AUSTRIA (c.1650-1800)

  • Ottoman Decline after 1565

  • Turkey: poor sultans, undisc.

  • army, backward milit. tech.,

  • inflation, rev's

  • Hungary the battleground

  • w/stable frontier of fort's

  •  No new conquests & very

  • expensive

  • 1656- Energetic viziers, Koprulus

  •  Renewed Ottoman aggression

  • Leopold I (1657-1705)

  • - Trained by Jesuits

  •  Diligent, but also intolerant

  • Served ably by such foreign

  • gen’ls as Eugene of Savoy &

  • Piccolomini

Popular reaction?

Aggressive foreign policy by Louis XIV of France (FC.95)

Decline of Ottoman Empire (FC.49)

Defeat in 30 Yrs War (FC.88)

Hapsburgs concentrate vs. the Ottoman Empire, although they are constantly diverted by French aggression in Germany

Turkish invasion & siege of Vienna (1683) is decisively defeated by relief army under Polish king Jan Sobieski

War of the Holy League (Pope, Austria, Venice, Poland, & Russia)  Turkish forces are crushed at Zenta (1697)

Treaty of Karlowitz (1699) Austria gains Slavonia, Transylvania, & rest of Hungary, making it a great power once again

Severe long-range problems for the Hapsburgs:

Powerful nobles who oppress the serfs & threaten Hapsb. power

Many different ethnic groups & cultures dividing the empire

Different states with different constitutional rights & obligations

Hapsburgs try to unify them by imposing Ger. lang. & Catholic religion on their subjects

Hapsburgs let nobles continue to oppress serfs as long as they don’t interfere with Hapsburg policies

Rising resentment by the various ethnic groups who want freedom from Austria

Backward social structure & agric. econ. Austria lags progressively further behind W. Europe


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

FC. 90 THE RESURGENCE OF HAPSBURG AUSTRIA (c.1650-1800)

  • Ottoman Decline after 1565

  • Turkey: poor sultans, undisc.

  • army, backward milit. tech.,

  • inflation, rev's

  • Hungary the battleground

  • w/stable frontier of fort's

  •  No new conquests & very

  • expensive

  • 1656- Energetic viziers, Koprulus

  •  Renewed Ottoman aggression

  • Leopold I (1657-1705)

  • - Trained by Jesuits

  •  Diligent, but also intolerant

  • Served ably by such foreign

  • gen’ls as Eugene of Savoy &

  • Piccolomini

Did they unify the administration?

Aggressive foreign policy by Louis XIV of France (FC.95)

Decline of Ottoman Empire (FC.49)

Defeat in 30 Yrs War (FC.88)

Hapsburgs concentrate vs. the Ottoman Empire, although they are constantly diverted by French aggression in Germany

Turkish invasion & siege of Vienna (1683) is decisively defeated by relief army under Polish king Jan Sobieski

War of the Holy League (Pope, Austria, Venice, Poland, & Russia)  Turkish forces are crushed at Zenta (1697)

Treaty of Karlowitz (1699) Austria gains Slavonia, Transylvania, & rest of Hungary, making it a great power once again

Severe long-range problems for the Hapsburgs:

Powerful nobles who oppress the serfs & threaten Hapsb. power

Many different ethnic groups & cultures dividing the empire

Different states with different constitutional rights & obligations

Hapsburgs try to unify them by imposing Ger. lang. & Catholic religion on their subjects

Hapsburgs rule each state separately to prevent different provinces from uniting to revolt

Hapsburgs let nobles continue to oppress serfs as long as they don’t interfere with Hapsburg policies

Rising resentment by the various ethnic groups who want freedom from Austria

Backward social structure & agric. econ. Austria lags progressively further behind W. Europe


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

FC. 90 THE RESURGENCE OF HAPSBURG AUSTRIA (c.1650-1800)

  • Ottoman Decline after 1565

  • Turkey: poor sultans, undisc.

  • army, backward milit. tech.,

  • inflation, rev's

  • Hungary the battleground

  • w/stable frontier of fort's

  •  No new conquests & very

  • expensive

  • 1656- Energetic viziers, Koprulus

  •  Renewed Ottoman aggression

  • Leopold I (1657-1705)

  • - Trained by Jesuits

  •  Diligent, but also intolerant

  • Served ably by such foreign

  • gen’ls as Eugene of Savoy &

  • Piccolomini

Good & bad effects?

Aggressive foreign policy by Louis XIV of France (FC.95)

Decline of Ottoman Empire (FC.49)

Defeat in 30 Yrs War (FC.88)

Hapsburgs concentrate vs. the Ottoman Empire, although they are constantly diverted by French aggression in Germany

Turkish invasion & siege of Vienna (1683) is decisively defeated by relief army under Polish king Jan Sobieski

War of the Holy League (Pope, Austria, Venice, Poland, & Russia)  Turkish forces are crushed at Zenta (1697)

Treaty of Karlowitz (1699) Austria gains Slavonia, Transylvania, & rest of Hungary, making it a great power once again

Severe long-range problems for the Hapsburgs:

Powerful nobles who oppress the serfs & threaten Hapsb. power

Many different ethnic groups & cultures dividing the empire

Different states with different constitutional rights & obligations

Hapsburgs try to unify them by imposing Ger. lang. & Catholic religion on their subjects

Hapsburgs rule each state separately to prevent different provinces from uniting to revolt

Hapsburgs let nobles continue to oppress serfs as long as they don’t interfere with Hapsburg policies

Rising resentment by the various ethnic groups who want freedom from Austria

Backward social structure & agric. econ. Austria lags progressively further behind W. Europe

Helped prevent revolts, but also kept Hapsburgs from uniting & ruling their empire effectively


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

FC. 90 THE RESURGENCE OF HAPSBURG AUSTRIA (c.1650-1800)

  • Ottoman Decline after 1565

  • Turkey: poor sultans, undisc.

  • army, backward milit. tech.,

  • inflation, rev's

  • Hungary the battleground

  • w/stable frontier of fort's

  •  No new conquests & very

  • expensive

  • 1656- Energetic viziers, Koprulus

  •  Renewed Ottoman aggression

  • Leopold I (1657-1705)

  • - Trained by Jesuits

  •  Diligent, but also intolerant

  • Served ably by such foreign

  • gen’ls as Eugene of Savoy &

  • Piccolomini

Aggressive foreign policy by Louis XIV of France (FC.95)

Decline of Ottoman Empire (FC.49)

Defeat in 30 Yrs War (FC.88)

Hapsburgs concentrate vs. the Ottoman Empire, although they are constantly diverted by French aggression in Germany

Turkish invasion & siege of Vienna (1683) is decisively defeated by relief army under Polish king Jan Sobieski

War of the Holy League (Pope, Austria, Venice, Poland, & Russia)  Turkish forces are crushed at Zenta (1697)

Treaty of Karlowitz (1699) Austria gains Slavonia, Transylvania, & rest of Hungary, making it a great power once again

Below: Schonbrunn Palace, an example of how everyone emulated Louis XIV with his own version of Versailles

Severe long-range problems for the Hapsburgs:

Powerful nobles who oppress the serfs & threaten Hapsb. power

Many different ethnic groups & cultures dividing the empire

Different states with different constitutional rights & obligations

Hapsburgs try to unify them by imposing Ger. lang. & Catholic religion on their subjects

Hapsburgs rule each state separately to prevent different provinces from uniting to revolt

Hapsburgs let nobles continue to oppress serfs as long as they don’t interfere with Hapsburg policies

Rising resentment by the various ethnic groups who want freedom from Austria

Backward social structure & agric. econ. Austria lags progressively further behind W. Europe

Helped prevent revolts, but also kept Hapsburgs from uniting & ruling their empire effectively

Competition from W. Eur. (FC.89)


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

FC. 90 THE RESURGENCE OF HAPSBURG AUSTRIA (c.1650-1800)

  • Ottoman Decline after 1565

  • Turkey: poor sultans, undisc.

  • army, backward milit. tech.,

  • inflation, rev's

  • Hungary the battleground

  • w/stable frontier of fort's

  •  No new conquests & very

  • expensive

  • 1656- Energetic viziers, Koprulus

  •  Renewed Ottoman aggression

  • Leopold I (1657-1705)

  • - Trained by Jesuits

  •  Diligent, but also intolerant

  • Served ably by such foreign

  • gen’ls as Eugene of Savoy &

  • Piccolomini

Aggressive foreign policy by Louis XIV of France (FC.95)

Decline of Ottoman Empire (FC.49)

Defeat in 30 Yrs War (FC.88)

Hapsburgs concentrate vs. the Ottoman Empire, although they are constantly diverted by French aggression in Germany

Turkish invasion & siege of Vienna (1683) is decisively defeated by relief army under Polish king Jan Sobieski

War of the Holy League (Pope, Austria, Venice, Poland, & Russia)  Turkish forces are crushed at Zenta (1697)

Treaty of Karlowitz (1699) Austria gains Slavonia, Transylvania, & rest of Hungary, making it a great power once again

Severe long-range problems for the Hapsburgs:

Powerful nobles who oppress the serfs & threaten Hapsb. power

Many different ethnic groups & cultures dividing the empire

Different states with different constitutional rights & obligations

Hapsburgs try to unify them by imposing Ger. lang. & Catholic religion on their subjects

Hapsburgs rule each state separately to prevent different provinces from uniting to revolt

Hapsburgs let nobles continue to oppress serfs as long as they don’t interfere with Hapsburg policies

Rising resentment by the various ethnic groups who want freedom from Austria

Backward social structure & agric. econ. Austria lags progressively further behind W. Europe

Helped prevent revolts, but also kept Hapsburgs from uniting & ruling their empire effectively

Competition from W. Eur. (FC.89)

Geopolitics of E. Europe (FC.89)

Overall prognosis?

Economic stagnation & ethnic unrest which get esp. serious in 1800s (FC.118)


Never be afraid to share your dreams with the world because there s nothing the world loves more than the taste of broken dreams www despair com

FC. 90 THE RESURGENCE OF HAPSBURG AUSTRIA (c.1650-1800)

  • Ottoman Decline after 1565

  • Turkey: poor sultans, undisc.

  • army, backward milit. tech.,

  • inflation, rev's

  • Hungary the battleground

  • w/stable frontier of fort's

  •  No new conquests & very

  • expensive

  • 1656- Energetic viziers, Koprulus

  •  Renewed Ottoman aggression

  • Leopold I (1657-1705)

  • - Trained by Jesuits

  •  Diligent, but also intolerant

  • Served ably by such foreign

  • gen’ls as Eugene of Savoy &

  • Piccolomini

Aggressive foreign policy by Louis XIV of France (FC.95)

Decline of Ottoman Empire (FC.49)

Defeat in 30 Yrs War (FC.88)

Hapsburgs concentrate vs. the Ottoman Empire, although they are constantly diverted by French aggression in Germany

Turkish invasion & siege of Vienna (1683) is decisively defeated by relief army under Polish king Jan Sobieski

War of the Holy League (Pope, Austria, Venice, Poland, & Russia)  Turkish forces are crushed at Zenta (1697)

Treaty of Karlowitz (1699) Austria gains Slavonia, Transylvania, & rest of Hungary, making it a great power once again

Severe long-range problems for the Hapsburgs:

Powerful nobles who oppress the serfs & threaten Hapsb. power

Many different ethnic groups & cultures dividing the empire

Different states with different constitutional rights & obligations

Hapsburgs try to unify them by imposing Ger. lang. & Catholic religion on their subjects

Hapsburgs rule each state separately to prevent different provinces from uniting to revolt

Hapsburgs let nobles continue to oppress serfs as long as they don’t interfere with Hapsburg policies

Rising resentment by the various ethnic groups who want freedom from Austria

Backward social structure & agric. econ. Austria lags progressively further behind W. Europe

Helped prevent revolts, but also kept Hapsburgs from uniting & ruling their empire effectively

Competition from W. Eur. (FC.89)

Geopolitics of E. Europe (FC.89)

Economic stagnation & ethnic unrest which get esp. serious in 1800s (FC.118)


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