Impacts of climate change on livestock and mitigation strategies
Download
1 / 21

IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON LIVESTOCK AND MITIGATION STRATEGIES - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 262 Views
  • Uploaded on

IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON LIVESTOCK AND MITIGATION STRATEGIES. Kshitiz Shrestha IAAS, Nepal. www.powerpointpresentationon.blogspot.com. Air. Water. Elements of atmosphere. Climate.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON LIVESTOCK AND MITIGATION STRATEGIES' - morse


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Impacts of climate change on livestock and mitigation strategies

IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON LIVESTOCK AND MITIGATION STRATEGIES

Kshitiz Shrestha

IAAS, Nepal

www.powerpointpresentationon.blogspot.com


Air STRATEGIES

Water

Elements of atmosphere

Climate

Specific atmospheric trend and pattern of particular place determined by the interaction of Atmospheric elements

Interaction

O2

Water vapour

CO2

Rainfall

Others

Snow,Hailstone

Winds

Pattern

Concentration

Solar radiation/ Temperature

Heat

Cold


Natural, STRATEGIESUnavoidable,

Adaptable,

Slow

Existing form

Quality, pattern of climatic elements

ChangedClimate

Abnormal,

Difficult to adapt,

Avoidable,

Rapid

Climate Change

Natural climate change

Natural process

Anthropogeniccontribution

Accelerated climate change

Pressing global issue

at present


Climate change is a phenomenon due to emissions of STRATEGIESgreenhouse gases from fuel combustion, deforestation, urbanization and industrialization (Upreti, 1999) resulting variations in solar energy, temperature and precipitation.

Between 1970 and 2004 global GHGs

emissions have increased by 70 %


Livestock ghg emissions
Livestock : GHG emissions STRATEGIES

N2O

  • Livestock  18 % of GHGs

  • The enteric fermentation of animals,

  • Manure (waste products),

  • Production of feed and forage (Dourmad et al., 2008).

  • Indirect sources : changes in land use and deforestation to create pasture land.

CH4


Climate change will have major impact on the people who depend on livestock for their livelihoods (Thornton et al., 2002).


Climate change and its impacts in nepal
Climate Change and its Impacts in Nepal depend on livestock for their livelihoods (Thornton et al., 2002).

  • Approximately 0.06 degrees Celsius per year.

  • Temperature in the Himalayas is increasing at a faster rate.

  • The Rika Samba Glacier in the Dhaulagiri region is retreating at a rate of 10m per year.

  • The AX010 Glacier of ShorongHimal will be extinct by 2060 if the current trend continues.

  • More than 40 Himalayan glacial lakes are dangerously closed to bursting (UNEP).

  • Rapidly melting glaciers means more seasonal variation in river flow water shortage, frequent floods and draughts in the country.


Direct and indirect impacts on livestock and livestock systems
Direct And Indirect Impacts On Livestock And Livestock Systems

  • Feeds: quantity and quality

  • Herbage growth and quality

  • Changes in composition of pasture

  • Changing concentration

    of water soluble carbohydrates

    and N at given dry matter yields

  • Lignifications of plant tissues


…Impacts on livestock Systems

B. Heat stress :

  • Feed intake, mortality, growth, reproduction, maintenance and production

  • Increased energy deficits

    C. Water :

  • Water scarcity

  • Not only will affect livestock drinking water sources, but it will also have a bearing on livestock feed production systems and pasture yield (Thornton et al., 2008)


D livestock diseases and disease vectors

…Impacts on livestock Systems

D. Livestock diseases and disease vectors

  • Vector-borne diseases could be affected by:

    (i) Expansion of vector populations into more temperate zones (such as livestock tick-borne diseases in higher altitude areas).

    (ii) Changes in rainfall pattern during wetter years, which could also lead to expanding vector populations and large-scale outbreaks of disease.


Livestock disease contd

…Impacts on livestock Systems

Livestock disease ….contd…

  • Helminthes infections.

  • Trypanotolerance- could be lost.

  • Distribution and impact of malaria in many systems.

  • Schistosomiasis and lymphatic filariasis in irrigated systems.

  • Heat-related mortality and morbidity could increase (Thornton et al., 2008).


E biodiversity

…Impacts on livestock Systems

E. Biodiversity

  • A 2.5° C rise in global temperature

    high risk of extinction.

  • Local and rare breeds could be lost


Livestock adaptation strategies
Livestock Adaptation strategies Systems

Breeding strategies

  • Identifying and strengthening local breeds

    • Adapted to local climatic stress and feed sources

    • Heat tolerant breeds

    • Disease tolerant breeds

  • Improving local genetics

    • Cross-breeding


Capacity building for livestock keepers

…Adaptation strategies… Systems

Capacity building for livestock keepers

  • increasing awareness of global changes.

training in agro-ecological technologies and practices for the production and conservation of fodder

improves the supply of animal feed and reduces malnutrition and mortality in herds.


Livestock management systems

…Adaptation strategies… Systems

Livestock management systems

  • Shade and water to reduce heat stress.

  • Reduction of livestock numbers – a lower number of more productive animals leads to more efficient production and lower GHG emissions from livestock production (Batima, 2007).

  • Changes in herd composition (selection of large animals rather than small)

  • Improved management of water resources (e.g. drip and sprinkler irrigation, store rainwater).


Mitigation of livestock ghg emissions
Mitigation of livestock GHG Systemsemissions

  • Higher concentrate in the diet  lower the emission of CH4.

  • Management of animal waste products (covered storage facilities).

  • Pasture grazing through rotational grazing.

  • Management of feed crop production.

  • Selection of faster growing breeds.

  • Lowering livestock production and consumption


Take home messages
Take-home messages Systems

  • Participatory approaches to sustainable management of natural resources

  • Community involvement in adaptation strategies

  • Financial incentives

  • Risk management mechanisms

  • Awareness and education

  • Mitigation strategies

  • Innovation, research and technology development

  • Indigenous knowledge


References Systems

  • Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (CGRFA). 2007. The state of the world animal genetic resources for food and agriculture. FAO, Rome, 523 pp.

  • Dourmad, J., Rigolot, C., and Hayo van derWerf, 2008. Emission of Greenhouse Gas: Developing management and animal farming systems to assist mitigation. Livestock and Global Change conference proceeding. May 2008, Tunisia.

  • FAO, 2008b. Climate-related Transboundary Pests and Diseases Including Relevant Aquatic Species. Expert meeting,


  • FAO. 2007b. Adaptation to Climate Change in Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries: perspective, framework and priorities. FAO, Rome.

  • Hahn, G.L. 1999. Dunamic Responses of cattle to thermal heat loads. Journal of Animal Science. Vol.77, 10-20.

  • Hoffmann, I. 2008. Livestock Genetic Diversity and Climate Change Adaptation. Livestock and Global Change conference proceeding. May 2008, Tunisia.

  • Sidahmed, A. 2008. Livestock and Climate Change: Coping and Risk Management Strategies for a Sustainable Future. In Livestock and Global Climate Change conference proceeding, May 2008, Tunisia.

  • Thornton P., Herrero M., Freeman A., Mwai O., Rege E., Jones P., and McDermott J., 2008. “Vulnerability, Climate Change and Livestock – Research Opportunities and Challenges for Poverty Alleviation”. ILRI, Kenya.


Thank you
Thank you Forestry, and Fisheries: perspective, framework and priorities. FAO, Rome.


ad