WHAT CAN YOU DO TO FACILITATE YOUR L2 LEARNING ？ . Yukiko A. Hatasa Hiroshima University. Successful Language Learners. Successful L2 learners are: Highly motivated. Autonomous. Capable of using a variety of language learning strategies.
Yukiko A. Hatasa
Successful L2 learners are:
The strongest predictorof
(Gardner, 2003; Noels, 2000; Dornyei, 2005; Dönyei & Kormos, 2000; Maclntyre et al., 2003; Yamashita, 2004. Schmidt,et al., 1996; Schmidt &Watanabe, 2001; Kondo-Brown, 2006)
A) Intrinsic motivation (performing the task because of the inherent pleasure in doing so)
C) Amotivation(absence of motivation. e.g., I don’t really understand what I am doing studying L2. )
(Ehrman, 1996; Noels et al., 1999, 2000; Ramage, 1990; Schmidt, Boraie, & Kassabgy, 1996; Tachibana, Matsukawa, & Zhong, 1996;Kondo-Brown 2006).
Be realistic about your goals. Short term goals should be achievable with efforts and can see outcomes/effects within the time span you have specified.
Choose an enjoyable task that is slightly difficult but not too difficult, such as reading books, watching anime or drama, listening to J-pop, playing games, etc. (IM-knowledge & IM-esthetics, IM-accomplishment)
Regularly check and reflect on what has worked or not worked, using checklists and logs.
If your original goals are found to be a bit unrealistic, modify your goals and plans to make them more realistic.
Relax and pay attention to the sign of stress.
Reward yourself when you have done well on a L2 task.
Do not compare yourself with others.
Strategies that deal with language directly.
Creating mental linkages, applying images and sounds、 reviewing well, employing action
Practicing, receiving and sending messages, analyzing and reasoning, creating structure for input and output
Guessing intelligently, overcoming limitations in speaking and writing
（See Handout pp.5-13）
Strategies that regulate your learning process
Centering your learning, arranging & planning your learning, evaluating your learning
Lowering your anxiety, encouraging yourself, taking your emotional temperature
Asking questions, cooperating with others , empathizing with others
(Chamot & Kupper, 1989/ Oxford et al., 1993; Thompson & Rubin, 1993;O\'Malley & Chamot, 1990; Cohen et al.1997)
Well tailored combinations of strategies often have more impact than single strategies. Certain strategies or clusters of strategies are linked to particular language skills or tasks.
Choose a strategy that fits your learning style and that you think you can handle with reasonable efforts.
Limit a number of strategy to practice.
As you use the strategy, keep a checklist or log of what worked and what not.
Once you become used to using the strategy, select another strategy to practice.
Strategies should be chosen so that they mesh with and support each other and so that they fit the requirements of the language task, the learners’ goals, and the learners’ style of learning.
Students tend to acquire grammatical competence more readily when they engage in tasks where they have to process information and use the language functionally.
(Seliger, 1977;Naiman et al 1978, Strong, 1984; Day, 1984; Ely, 1986, Dekeyser, 2007;
Cathcart, 1986; Ellis, Basturkmen, Loewen, 2001)
(Iwashita 1999, 2003, Philp 2003, Takahashi 2003, Oliver & Mackay 2003)。
Learn a lot of expressions that help you to negotiate meanings and use them during conversation in L2 (Long, 1991)
Try to engage in one-to-one conversation. It increases the amout and complexity of speech, and helps improving the comprehension.
Matching the object and the word
Defining the scope of word meaning
Paradigmatic relations (table-chair)
Syntagmatic relations (sit-chair)
(Anderson & Freebody,1981; Ammon, 1987; Garcia 1991; Flood et. al., 1991; Rupley, Logan, and Nichols , 1999)
(Chikamatsu, 1996、2006; Akamatsu, 1998, 1999, 2002;Haynes & Carr, 1990； Mori 1998, Koda, 1989, 1990, 1998)
(Freyd & Baron 1982 ; Tyler & Nagy 1989; Mori & Nagy, 1999; Mori 2002a, 2003; Kondo-Brown, 2007
Formulaic sequence are preferred multi-word strings that native speakers use.
Knowing formulaic sequences is particularly important at the beginning level because they reduce memory load and increase a chance of sustained communication.
Native speakers have a large inventory of formulaic sequence, but non-native speakers don’t.
(Ellis, 2004; Wray, 2002,2009; Schmidt, 2001)
A lack of knowledge of formulaic sequence are found to cause persistent problem of non-nativeness at an advanced level