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Girding for War: The North & the South. 1861 - 1865. President of the Disunited States of America. Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861 7 states had already succeeded, 8 more were trying to decide Inaugural address – there would be no conflict unless the South provoked it.

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Girding for war the north the south

Girding for War:The North & the South

1861 - 1865

President of the disunited states of america
President of the Disunited States of America

  • Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861

    • 7 states had already succeeded, 8 more were trying to decide

    • Inaugural address – there would be no conflict unless the South provoked it

A split in the union
A Split in the Union?

  • Split brought up questions about the sharing of the national debt & the allocation of federal territories

  • Split would please European countries:

    • US was the only major display of democracy in the Western Hemisphere

    • Monroe Doctrine could be broken

Sc assails fort sumter
SC Assails Fort Sumter

  • South seized all arsenals, mints, & other public property within their territory

  • Fort Sumter

    • Occupied by Northern troops who needed supplies

Lincoln s plan
Lincoln’s Plan

  • Lincoln decided to send supplies to troops

    • promised Governor Pickens(SC) that he was not sending more men or weapons

  • South demanded surrender of Fort Sumter

    • Grounds for war if North sent supplies

The war begins april 12 1861
The War Begins (April 12, 1861)

  • South fired on Fort Sumter

    • 34 hour bombardment- no lives lost

  • Northern troops surrendered

  • The Civil War had begun

Remember fort sumter
“Remember Fort Sumter”

  • Provoked the North to fight

    • Gen. Scott Commander of the Army (75 yrs. old)

  • April 14, 1861 – Lincoln called for 75,000 union troops

  • April 19 & 27, 1861 - ordered a blockade of Southern ports

  • 4 more states seceded

    • VA, Ark., Tenn., & NC map p. 447

  • Capital of Confederacy moved from Montgomery to Richmond

The valuable border states map page 447
The Valuable Border Statesmap page 447

  • Border States

    • MO, KY, MD, Del, & later WV

      • WV split from VA in 1861 over secession

    • MD, MO, & KY would almost double the manufacturing capacity of the South & increase by nearly half its supply of horses & mules

    • Ohio River – Cumberland & Tennessee Rivers was where much of the Confederacy’s grain, gunpowder, & iron was produced

Lincoln deals with the border states
Lincoln deals with the Border States

  • Lincoln:

    • In MD declared marital law & sent in troops

    • Sent federal troops to WV & MO

    • He declared publicly that he was not fighting to free slaves

    • Declared that his goal was to get the Union back together

    • Indian Territory mainly sided with the South

Brother s blood
Brother’s Blood

  • Many brothers fought against each other

    • Particularly in the border states

  • Northerners fought on the side of the South and vice versa

    • Senator Crittenden’s sons fought on opposite sides

    • Lincoln’s wife had 4 brothers who fought for the Confederacy

Advantages strengths


Fighting defensively

on familiar territory

Strong support

Strong military leadership ****

Southerners were well trained

Didn’t have to win the war

Shortage of supplies



Large population

22 million to 9 million (3.5 were slaves)



Abundant resources


Railway system

Abraham Lincoln

Advantages/ Strengths

Disadvantages weaknesses


Small population


Few factories

Few railroads

Belief in states’ rights/ government lacked power

Lack of supplies


Had to invade the South

Public opinion was divided/ support was shaky

Northerners were not as experienced as Southerners

Disadvantages/ Weaknesses

Dethroning king cotton
Dethroning King Cotton

  • South depended on foreign intervention

    • didn’t get it

    • Many Europeans were pro-North & anti-slavery

  • Shortage of cotton during war?

    • England & France had a surplus

    • As North won Southern territory, they sent cotton & food to Europe

    • India & Egypt upped their cotton production

    • **Result** – Europe needed more wheat & corn from the North than cotton from the South

The decisiveness of diplomacy
The Decisiveness of Diplomacy

  • Crisis

    • 1861 – Union warship stopped the British mail steamer theTrent & forcibly removed two Confederate diplomats bound for Europe

    • Lincoln released the prisoners & tension cooled

The alabama
The Alabama

  • British build ships for the Confederacy (unarmed)

    • 1862 – the Alabama went to the Portuguese Azores & took on weapons & crew from Britain

      • Never actually arrived in the South

      • Destroyed in 1864 off the coast of France

  • Charles Francis Adams

    • persuaded Britain not to build any more ships for the Confederacy

    • Could be used against England in the future

Foreign flare ups
Foreign Flare-Ups

  • Britain had two Laird rams

    • 2 Confederate warships that could destroy wooden Union ships

    • Britain decided to use ships in its Royal Navy

  • Near Canada

    • Confederate agents plotted to burn down American cities

    • Mini-armies raised by British-hating Irish-Americans sent to Canada

  • Napoleon III installed Austrian Archduke Maximilian as emperor of Mexico

President davis vs president lincoln
President Davis vs. President Lincoln

  • Problems for the South:

    • Gave states the ability to secede in the future (from the Confederacy)

    • Getting Southern states to send troops to help other states was difficult

  • J. Davis – never very popular

  • A. Lincoln – benefit of leading an established government

Limitations on wartime liberties
Limitations on Wartime Liberties

  • Lincoln

    • Illegally proclaimed a blockade

    • Increased the size of the army & sent troops

    • Advancement of $2 million to 3 private citizens for war purposes

    • Suspended habeas corpus

    • Intimidation of voters in border states

    • Justification: actions weren’t permanent & were needed to preserve the Union

  • South refused to sacrifice state’s rights & therefore lost the war

Volunteers draftees the north
Volunteers & Draftees: The North

  • 1863 - Congress passed the first conscription law

    • Angered the poor because rich could hire a substitute by paying $300 to Congress

    • Riots broke out – New York City Draft Riot – 1863

    • Volunteers manned more than 90% of the Union army

      • Later money was offered for service when volunteers became scarce

      • Many deserters

The south
The South

  • Had to resort to a draft nearly a year before the North

  • Also included privileges for the rich

    • Those who owned 20+ slaves were exempt from the draft

The economic stresses of war
The Economic Stresses of War

  • North - Morrill Tariff Act

    • Increased tariff rates by about 5-10%

    • Later increased more

  • Treasury issued green-backed paper money

    • Money was unstable & sank to as low as 39 cents per gold dollar

  • Treasury sold war bonds

  • Runaway inflation

    • 9000% inflation rate in the South

    • 80% for the Union

National banking system
National Banking System

  • Created to establish a standard bank-note currency

    • Banks that joined could buy government bonds & issue sound paper money

  • 1st step towards a unified national banking network

The north s economic boom
The North’s Economic Boom

  • Emerged from the war more prosperous than before

    • A millionaire class was born

  • Many Union suppliers used shoddy equipment in their supplies

  • Sizes for clothing were invented

  • Reaper helped feed millions

  • 1859 – discovery of petroleum oil sent people to Pennsylvania

Women in war times
Women in War Times

  • Women gained new advances:

    • Took jobs left behind by men

    • Some posed as men & fought in the war

  • Clara Barton & Dorothea Dix

    • Helped transform nursing to a respectable profession

  • Sally Tompkins

    • Ran an infirmary for wounded in Richmond

    • Received rank as Captain from Davis

A crushed cotton kingdom
A Crushed Cotton Kingdom

  • South was ruined by the war

    • Transportation collapsed

    • Supplies became scarce

    • End of war, South claimed only 12% of the national wealth

      • Pre war – 30%

    • Per capita income –2/5 that of Northerners

      • Pre war – 2/3 of Northerners

War aims strategies


Defensive strategy

Expected Britain & France to pressure the North so cotton supply would be restored


Blockade of Southern ports

Gain control of Mississippi River

Capture Richmond, Virginia

War Aims & Strategies