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Chapter 3. Design of production system. Contents. 1 Product and service design 2 Process design 3 Production technology selection 4 Location 5 Layout. 1 Product and service design. 1.1 Objectives of product and service design.

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Chapter 3 l.jpg

Chapter 3

Design of production system


Contents l.jpg

Contents

  • 1 Product and service design

  • 2 Process design

  • 3 Production technology selection

  • 4 Location

  • 5 Layout


1 product and service design l.jpg

1 Product and service design


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1.1Objectives of product and service design

  • To bring new or revised products or services to the market as quickly as possible

  • To design products and/or services that have customer appeal.

  • To increase the level of customer satisfaction.

  • To increase quality

  • To reduce costs


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1.2Design for customers

  • It is too difficult to fix-up

  • Too much functions

  • Too complicated to operation, etc.


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1.3Design for manufacturing and assembly

(DFMA)


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1.3.1Objectives

  • To reduce the number of parts and simplify the product.

  • To make easy to manufacture and assembly

  • Reduce the costs


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1.3.2 Principles and methods

  • Standardization

  • Minimize parts and operation

  • Modular design

  • Design for ease of jointing and separating and ease of coupling/uncoupling

  • Design for one-way assembly, one- way travel

  • Avoid special fasteners and connectors

  • CAD--Computed- aided design


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Modular design

A form of standardization in which component parts are subdivided into modules that are easily replaced or interchanged.


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Advantages of Modular design

  • Fewer parts to deal with inventory and in manufacturing

  • Reduce training costs and time.

  • More routine purchasing, handing, and inspection procedures.

  • Opportunities for long production runs and automation.

  • Need for fewer parts and improve quality.


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Disadvantages of Modular design

  • Designs may be frozen with too many imperfections remaining.

  • High cost of design changes increases resistance to improvements.

  • Decreased variety results in less consumer appeal.


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1.4Design for reliability

  • Reliability is the probability that an item will function as planned over a given time period. It may be calculated as follows:

    (λ--a constant failure rate)


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1.5 Designing and Developing new services


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Three dimensions of service design

  • The degree of standardization of a service.

  • The degree of customer contact in delivering the service.

  • The mix of physical goods and intangible services


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Three service-ways

  • Way of Line

  • Automatic way

  • Individual way


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2. Process design


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2.1 Types of processing

  • Continuous processing

  • Intermittent processing

  • Projects


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Continuous processing

  • Highly specialized system producing large volumes of one or a few standardized items.

  • Repetitive manufacturing (Typically, these products are produced in discrete units.)


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Intermittent processing

System that produces lower volumes of items or services with a greater variety of processing requirements

  • Batches / lots

  • Job shop


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2.2 The contents of the process design

  • P 125, Figure 4.3


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2.3 Major factors affecting process design decisions

  • Nature of product/service demand

  • Degree of vertical integration: forward and backward integration

  • Production flexibility---product flexibility/ volume flexibility

  • Degree of automation

  • Product/service quality


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2.4 types of process designs

  • Product-focused

  • Process-focused

  • Group technology/

    Cellular Manufacturing


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Product-focused

A form of production processing organization in which production departments are organized according to the type of product/service being produced.

(See Figure 4.4, P.128)


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Process-focused

  • A form of production in which production operations are grouped according to type of processes.

  • (See Figure 4.5, P.129)


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Group technology/cellular manufacturing (GT/CM)

Form of production based on a coding system for parts that allows families of parts to be assigned to manufacturing cells for production.

(P.130-131)


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3. Production technology selection

  • NC--numerically controlled machines

  • Robots

  • Automated quality control inspection

  • AIS--automated identification systems

  • Automated production systems:

  • FMS---Flexible manufacturing systems

  • CAD/CAM

  • CIMS (see Figure 5.3 P.185)


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Characteristics of factories of the future

(P.186)


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4. Location

4.1 General factors affecting location decision

Figure 7.4 (p.254)

Table 7.2 (p.257


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4.2 Analyzing retailing and other service location

Table 7.3 (p.260)


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5. Layout

  • 5.1 Objectives of facility layouts

    Table 8.1 (p.281)


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5.2 Four basic types of layouts for manufacturing facilities

  • Process layouts

  • Product layouts

  • Cellular manufacturing layouts

  • Fixed position layout


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5.2.1Process layouts

  • Functional layouts, job shop

  • The layouts are designed to accommodate variety in product designs and processing steps.

  • A variety of products in relatively small batches


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Product layouts

  • They are designed to accommodate only a few product designs.

  • The volume is large


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Cellular manufacturing layouts

  • Machines are grouped into cells, and the cells function somewhat like a product layout island within a larger job shop or process layout.

  • (Table p.285)


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Fixed position layout

  • Figure 8.1 (p.286)

  • The layouts are used when a product is very bulky, large, heavy


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Hybrid layouts


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5.3 New trends in manufacturing layout

  • Cellular manufacturing layouts within larger process layouts

  • Automated material-handling equipment

  • U-shaped production lines

  • More open work areas

  • Smaller and more compact factory layouts

  • Less space provided for storage of inventories


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5.4 Service facility layouts


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