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Chapter 3. Design of production system. Contents. 1 Product and service design 2 Process design 3 Production technology selection 4 Location 5 Layout. 1 Product and service design. 1.1 Objectives of product and service design.

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Chapter 3

Design of production system


  • 1 Product and service design

  • 2 Process design

  • 3 Production technology selection

  • 4 Location

  • 5 Layout

1 Product and service design

1.1Objectives of product and service design

  • To bring new or revised products or services to the market as quickly as possible

  • To design products and/or services that have customer appeal.

  • To increase the level of customer satisfaction.

  • To increase quality

  • To reduce costs

1.2Design for customers

  • It is too difficult to fix-up

  • Too much functions

  • Too complicated to operation, etc.

1.3Design for manufacturing and assembly



  • To reduce the number of parts and simplify the product.

  • To make easy to manufacture and assembly

  • Reduce the costs

1.3.2 Principles and methods

  • Standardization

  • Minimize parts and operation

  • Modular design

  • Design for ease of jointing and separating and ease of coupling/uncoupling

  • Design for one-way assembly, one- way travel

  • Avoid special fasteners and connectors

  • CAD--Computed- aided design

Modular design

A form of standardization in which component parts are subdivided into modules that are easily replaced or interchanged.

Advantages of Modular design

  • Fewer parts to deal with inventory and in manufacturing

  • Reduce training costs and time.

  • More routine purchasing, handing, and inspection procedures.

  • Opportunities for long production runs and automation.

  • Need for fewer parts and improve quality.

Disadvantages of Modular design

  • Designs may be frozen with too many imperfections remaining.

  • High cost of design changes increases resistance to improvements.

  • Decreased variety results in less consumer appeal.

1.4Design for reliability

  • Reliability is the probability that an item will function as planned over a given time period. It may be calculated as follows:

    (λ--a constant failure rate)

1.5 Designing and Developing new services

Three dimensions of service design

  • The degree of standardization of a service.

  • The degree of customer contact in delivering the service.

  • The mix of physical goods and intangible services

Three service-ways

  • Way of Line

  • Automatic way

  • Individual way

2. Process design

2.1 Types of processing

  • Continuous processing

  • Intermittent processing

  • Projects

Continuous processing

  • Highly specialized system producing large volumes of one or a few standardized items.

  • Repetitive manufacturing (Typically, these products are produced in discrete units.)

Intermittent processing

System that produces lower volumes of items or services with a greater variety of processing requirements

  • Batches / lots

  • Job shop

2.2 The contents of the process design

  • P 125, Figure 4.3

2.3 Major factors affecting process design decisions

  • Nature of product/service demand

  • Degree of vertical integration: forward and backward integration

  • Production flexibility---product flexibility/ volume flexibility

  • Degree of automation

  • Product/service quality

2.4 types of process designs

  • Product-focused

  • Process-focused

  • Group technology/

    Cellular Manufacturing


A form of production processing organization in which production departments are organized according to the type of product/service being produced.

(See Figure 4.4, P.128)


  • A form of production in which production operations are grouped according to type of processes.

  • (See Figure 4.5, P.129)

Group technology/cellular manufacturing (GT/CM)

Form of production based on a coding system for parts that allows families of parts to be assigned to manufacturing cells for production.


3. Production technology selection

  • NC--numerically controlled machines

  • Robots

  • Automated quality control inspection

  • AIS--automated identification systems

  • Automated production systems:

  • FMS---Flexible manufacturing systems


  • CIMS (see Figure 5.3 P.185)

Characteristics of factories of the future


4. Location

4.1 General factors affecting location decision

Figure 7.4 (p.254)

Table 7.2 (p.257

4.2 Analyzing retailing and other service location

Table 7.3 (p.260)

5. Layout

  • 5.1 Objectives of facility layouts

    Table 8.1 (p.281)

5.2 Four basic types of layouts for manufacturing facilities

  • Process layouts

  • Product layouts

  • Cellular manufacturing layouts

  • Fixed position layout

5.2.1Process layouts

  • Functional layouts, job shop

  • The layouts are designed to accommodate variety in product designs and processing steps.

  • A variety of products in relatively small batches

Product layouts

  • They are designed to accommodate only a few product designs.

  • The volume is large

Cellular manufacturing layouts

  • Machines are grouped into cells, and the cells function somewhat like a product layout island within a larger job shop or process layout.

  • (Table p.285)

Fixed position layout

  • Figure 8.1 (p.286)

  • The layouts are used when a product is very bulky, large, heavy

Hybrid layouts

5.3 New trends in manufacturing layout

  • Cellular manufacturing layouts within larger process layouts

  • Automated material-handling equipment

  • U-shaped production lines

  • More open work areas

  • Smaller and more compact factory layouts

  • Less space provided for storage of inventories

5.4 Service facility layouts

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