The Fall of the Roman Republic. The life and times of Gaius Julius Caesar. The Big Picture. After today’s lesson, you should be able to answer the following questions. Could the decline of the Republic have been prevented? How might history have been different is Caesar was defeated in Gaul?
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The life and times of Gaius Julius Caesar
After today’s lesson, you should be able to answer the following questions.
over foreign lands and people.
-By 133 BC, Rome will control almost the entire Mediterranean coast.
-Rome control is so widespread, the Romans call the Mediterranean Sea, “Our Sea.”
The extent of Roman control after the Punic Wars
- By using slaves for labor, Roman plebeians found little opportunity for jobs in the countryside of the city.
Caesar and Pompey are now set for civil war.
- The Senate, needing to have support, join with Pompey and declare Caesar an enemy of Rome.
- Caesar, with his loyal armies, crosses the Rubicon River, entering Italy with Roman soldiers. An act of clear treason.
- Pompey and Caesar’s armies finally meet for a final battle in Greece.
- Caesar wins. Pompey flees to Egypt, where he is murdered by the pharaoh, Ptolemy XII.
- The Senate, with no one left to support their power, are forced to elect Julius Caesar dictator for life.
Caesar’s Reforms of Roman Government
- Created a public works program to employ the jobless citizens of Rome and gave land to his soldiers and the poor.
-Introduced the Julian Calendar, which he adapted from the Egyptians
- He granted Roman citizenship to more people, many coming from other Italian tribes. (ie- not the Latins).
Still, many of the patricians and Senators of Rome hated Caesar and saw him as another would-be king.
To save what they saw as a crumbling republic, a small group of Senators, led by Marcus Brutus, assassinate Caesar in the Senate on March 15, 44 BC.
He is stabbed 23 times. It was said his last act in life was to try and cover his face with his toga so that no one would see his face as he died.