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第十四讲 明朝的衰败和灭亡 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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第十四讲 明朝的衰败和灭亡. 一 宦官专权 二 士大夫与党争 三 明末农民战争. 宦官专权. 明代宦官掌握东、西厂和锦衣卫,是明朝特务政治的代表,是其得以专权一因。 明成祖永乐十八年( 1420 ),设立 “ 东厂 ” 特务机构,由亲信宦官掌管,后来例用司礼监太监提督,开宦官干政之端。 明宦官专权,始于英宗时之司礼监太监王振。. 锦衣卫印. 宦官专权. 明朝废了宰相,形成了部分的权力真空,这为明代宦官专权提供了空间,使得宦官得以以皇帝家奴的身份窃取了部分皇权。. 通政司. →. 司礼监. →. 皇帝. →. 司礼监. →. 内阁. 票拟 ↓.

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第十四讲 明朝的衰败和灭亡

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