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MONGOLIA. Country Report. By Kadyei Zurash. Agricultural officer Governor’s Administration Office of Songino Khairhan District. The Mongolia is the seventeenth largest country in the world by its size of territory and located between Russia and China Area: 1.560.500

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country report


Country Report


Kadyei Zurash

Agricultural officer

Governor’s Administration Office of Songino Khairhan District


The Mongolia is the seventeenth largest country in the world by its size of territory and located between Russia and China

Area: 1.560.500




  • Population of 2.6 million people of whom some are sedentary on city dwellers and others are nomads.
  • Mongolia is young country with 80% of population is under the age of 35

Mongolia divided into 3 types of administrative districts; 21 aimag

330 soum

1600 bagas

  • Religions – Buddhist 90%, Muslim and Other 10%
  • Ethnic groups – Mongol 90% Kazakh 4% Other 6%

An Aimag is a self-dependant administrative and territorial division of MGL It has around 80.0 in area, over 90.0 citizens and 1.5 million heads of animals

  • Literacy of Mongolia 82.7%


Population (2007 est.): 2.63 million.

Annual growth rate (2007): 1.5%.

Health (2007): Infant mortality rate--43/1000 (under five years).

Life expectancy—average 70 yrs.

About two-thirds of the total population is under age 40, 28.5% of whom are under 14.

Ethnic groups(2004): 85% Mongol, 7% Kazakh, 8% others, including Chinese and Russian.

Languages: Mongolian, Kazakh, Russian, and English.

Religions: Tibetan Buddhist 94%, Muslim 7% and others

Education: 11Years compulsory (provided free by the government).

Literacy--more than 90%.



MGL has a long history from ancient times

  • First state was established about 2500 years ago
  • Chinges khaan was formed his Empire in Mongolia 800 years ago
  • Outer and earner Mongolia was a Chinese province (1691-1911),
  • In 1911 The Mongols accepted Russian aid and proclaimed their independence of Chinese rule
  • In 1921: Provisional People\'s Government declares independence of Mongolia and developed under socialist rule from 1921-1990
  • In 1990 democratic reform begun
  • Mongolia became a full member of the United Nations in 1960

Nomadic Mongolia

Mongolia is a remote country with limited transport and energy infrastructure, a small domestic market, harsh climate, nomadic livestock and low population density.

High dependency on livestock, which is the main base of the economy, highlights the volatility and risks from nature and weather, that so influences the Mongolian economy.


Husbandry is most important sector

  • Mongolia is one of few nations keeping nomadic animal husbandry.
  • Pastureland is central for livestock breeding.
  • Agricultural production accounts for 30% of the Gross Domestic Production and livestock sector produces 80% of the total agricultural production.


  • EXPORT :
  • IMPORT :

Oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates,tin, nickel, zinc,wolfram , fluorspar

Copper, livestock, animal products, cashmere,wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals.

Machinery and equipment, fuels, food products, industrial consumer good, chemicals, building materials.

poverty of mongolia
Poverty of Mongolia

Poverty has been a direct consequence of the transition to a market economy in the 1990s, after the breakup of the Soviet Union and the collapse of Mongolia\'s centrally planned economy. unemployment increased, price inflation soared and social spending fell.

who are mongolia s rural poor people
Who are Mongolia\'s rural poor people?
  • unemployed people
  • women who are heads of households
  • members of households with more than four children
  • families of small herders
  • people without basic education
  • vulnerable groups, such as the elderly and disabled people, and orphaned children
ifad ngos in mongolia
IFAD – NGOs in Mongolia

Since 1996 the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) approved a first loan of US$3.5 million to the Mongolian Government to finance the Arhangai and Huvsgul Rural Poverty Alleviation Project (AHRPAP).

IFAD supports a second project in Mongolia, the Rural Poverty Reduction Program, with a loan of more than US$11.0 million. Projects have introduced an innovative restocking scheme that helps herders rebuild their herds with credit in kind. Credit is also provided for vegetable production and activities that generate income for non-herder families.

rural poverty alleviation project
Rural Poverty Alleviation Project

The Project had four components :

  • Livestock distribution
  • Vegetable production
  • Project implementation and institutional support
  • Technical assistance (TA), studies and training