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CHAPTER 11. INDUSTRY. INTRO. ¾ of world’s industrial production is located in four regions: NW Europe Eastern Europe Eastern North America East Asia Each is broken down further Less than 1% of Earth’s land is devoted to industry

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Chapter 11

CHAPTER 11

INDUSTRY


Intro
INTRO

  • ¾ of world’s industrial production is located in four regions:

    • NW Europe

    • Eastern Europe

    • Eastern North America

    • East Asia

      • Each is broken down further

  • Less than 1% of Earth’s land is devoted to industry

  • When compared to agriculture, industry is much more clustered in space

  • 2 key factors in determining best location for a factory:

    • Where the markets for the product are located

    • Where the resources needed to make the product are located


ISSUE #1

Where is Industry Distributed?


Manufacturing value added
Manufacturing Value Added

Fig. 11-1: The world’s major manufacturing regions are found in North America, Europe, and East Asia. Other manufacturing centers are also found elsewhere.


Industrial districts in europe see ki 1 worksheets
INDUSTRIAL DISTRICTS IN EUROPE(see KI#1 worksheets)

WESTERN EUROPE

EASTERN EUROPE

Central Industrial District

St. Petersburg

Volga

Ural

Kuznetsk

Eastern Ukraine

Silesia

  • UK

  • Rhine-Ruhr Valley

  • Mid-Rhine

  • Northern Italy


Manufacturing centers in western europe
Manufacturing Centers in Western Europe

Fig. 11-2: The major manufacturing centers in Western Europe extend in a north-south band from Britain to Italy.


Manufacturing centers in eastern europe and russia
Manufacturing Centers in Eastern Europe and Russia

Fig. 11-5: Major manufacturing centers are clustered in southern Poland, European Russia, and the Ukraine. Other centers were developed east of the Urals.


Industrial districts in north america see ki 1 worksheets
INDUSTRIAL DISTRICTS IN NORTH AMERICA(see KI#1 worksheets)

U.S.

CANADA

St. Lawrence Valley-Ontario Peninsula

  • New England

  • Middle Atlantic

  • Mohawk Valley

  • Pittsburgh-Lake Erie

  • Western Great Lakes


Industrial regions of north america
Industrial Regions of North America

Fig. 11-6: The major industrial regions of North America are clustered in the northeast U.S. and southeastern Canada, although there are other important centers.


Industrial districts in east asia see ki 1 worksheets
INDUSTRIAL DISTRICTS IN EAST ASIA(see KI#1 worksheets)

  • Best asset is its large labor force

  • Japan – emerged as an industrial power in the 1950s/1960s

  • China – world’s 2nd largest manufacturer, largest labor force in manufacturing


Manufacturing centers in east asia
Manufacturing Centers in East Asia

Fig. 11-7: Many industries in China are clustered in three centers near the east coast. In Japan, production is clustered along the southeast coast.


ISSUE #2

Why Do Industries Have Different Distributions?


Industry seeks to maximize profits by limiting production costs. Companies usually face two types of geographical costs:

Situation Factors

Site Factors

(result from the unique characteristics of a location)

(involve transporting materials to and from a factory)


Situation factors
SITUATION FACTORS costs. Companies usually face two types of geographical costs:

IN +

1. PROXIMITY TO INPUTS

2. PROXIMITY TO MARKETS

3. TRANSPORT CHOICES


Proximity to inputs
PROXIMITY TO INPUTS costs. Companies usually face two types of geographical costs:

STEEL

If the weight of an input is great, a factory may choose to locate near the input in order to cut down on transportation costs


Copper cartoon
COPPER CARTOON costs. Companies usually face two types of geographical costs:

  • Draw a picture/visual representation depicting the various aspects of copper as a bulk-reducing industry. Your picture must contain a picture of a copper mine and the following:

  • Concentration mills

  • Smelters

  • Refineries

    - Include a brief caption explaining the location of each as it relates to the copper mine


Make arizona your copper headquarters
MAKE ARIZONA YOUR costs. Companies usually face two types of geographical costs:COPPER HEADQUARTERS!!!!

  • The map on page 373 states that “In the United States, most plants that concentrate, smelt, and refine copper are in or near Arizona, where most copper mines are located.”

  • Arizona has been hit very hard by recent economic woes, especially in regards to real estate. You have the opportunity to turn the tide by bringing commercial real estate to Arizona by attracting members of the copper industry to your state.

  • Your job is to create a commercial highlighting why Arizona is such a great state for a company to establish their copper headquarters. You can be as creative as you want as long as you meet the guidelines.


Guidelines
GUIDELINES costs. Companies usually face two types of geographical costs:

  • Your commercial must:

  • Summarize each of the following processes:

    • mining, concentrating, smelting, refining

  • Explain why being located in Arizona helps with each process. (this is the meat of the commercial - sell, sell, sell!)

  • Have an image (and text, music, slogan… accompanying it) for each of the above listed. Your creativity can really come here, use music, vids, pictures, jingles, slogans……

    Due Date: Monday, March 21 - email to Mr. Oswald prior to the start of class


  • Proximity to inputs steel
    PROXIMITY TO INPUTS - STEEL costs. Companies usually face two types of geographical costs:

    • Bulk-reducing industry

    • Originally Iron and Steel mills clustered near the sources of these raw materials (iron ore and coal - see map on 374)

    • Watts steam engine (1769) – increases iron production


    Integrated steel mills
    Integrated Steel Mills costs. Companies usually face two types of geographical costs:

    Fig. 11-9: Integrated steel mills in the U.S. are clustered near the southern Great Lakes, which helped minimize transport costs of heavy raw materials.


    U s steel industry
    U.S. STEEL INDUSTRY costs. Companies usually face two types of geographical costs:

    • MID – 1800s – clustered in Pittsburgh and SW PA (why? what was there? – iron ore and coal)

    • Gradually moves west (where and why? – Minnesota, Indiana, Illinois – discovery or iron ore but also changes in the steelmaking process which required more iron ore in proportion to coal)

    • In first half of the 20th century most steel mills were built along the coasts (why did this change occur? – changes in transportation costs as more iron ore was imported and greater use of scrap iron, which was available near major cities on the coasts)


    U s steel cont
    U.S STEEL cont. costs. Companies usually face two types of geographical costs:

    • Many steel mills have recently closed

    • Survivors benefit from access to markets more than access to inputs

      • Goes against historical trend (why?)


    Nucor steel minimills
    Nucor Steel costs. Companies usually face two types of geographical costs:Minimills

    Fig. 11-10: Minimills produce steel from scrap metal, and they are distributed around the country near local markets. Nucor is the largest minimill operator.


    Proximity to markets
    PROXIMITY TO MARKETS costs. Companies usually face two types of geographical costs:

    • For many, best location is closest to where the product is sold (ex. soda)

      - transportation costs are especially critical for these industries:

      1. Bulk-gaining

      2. Single Market

      3. Perishable


    Proximity to markets cont
    PROXIMITY TO MARKETS cont. costs. Companies usually face two types of geographical costs:

    BULK-GAINING INDUSTRY

    FABRICATED METALS & MACHINERY

    Combines steel and other metals into more complex products (tv, refrigerators, air conditioners, motor vehicles)

    Assembly plants clustered in “auto alley” (why?)

    Recent change in location of assembly plants from coasts to interior due to changing market

    See insets on page 376

    • Good examples are soft drinks

    • Why is scotch whiskey an exception?


    Location of beer breweries
    Location of Beer Breweries costs. Companies usually face two types of geographical costs:

    Fig. 11-11: Beer brewing is a bulk-gaining industry that needs to be located near consumers. Breweries of the two largest brewers are located near major population centers.


    Chevrolet assembly plants 1955
    Chevrolet Assembly Plants, 1955 costs. Companies usually face two types of geographical costs:

    Fig. 11-12a: In 1955, GM assembled identical Chevrolets at ten final assembly plants located near major population centers.


    Chevrolet assembly plants 2007
    Chevrolet Assembly Plants, 2007 costs. Companies usually face two types of geographical costs:

    Fig. 11-12b: In 2007, GM was producing a wider variety of vehicles, and production of various models was spread through the interior of the country.


    Proximity to markets cont1
    PROXIMITY TO MARKETS cont. costs. Companies usually face two types of geographical costs:

    SINGLE MARKET MANUFACTURERS

    PERISHABLE PRODUCTS

    Must be located near markets (think milk and Von Thunen)

    Not the case for frozen foods (cheese, butter)

    Not all perishables are food (newspaper – why?)

    • “ just in time products”

    • Location to assembly plants, not markets, is most important

    • Think of parts makers for cars


    Motor vehicle parts plants
    Motor Vehicle Parts Plants costs. Companies usually face two types of geographical costs:

    Fig. 11-13: U.S.-owned parts plants are clustered near the main final assembly plants. Foreign-owned plants tend to be located further south, where labor unions are weaker.


    Ship rail truck or air you are responsible for this section up to site factors on your own
    SHIP, RAIL, TRUCK OR AIR? costs. Companies usually face two types of geographical costs:You are responsible for this section (up to Site Factors) on your own


    Pictures
    PICTURES costs. Companies usually face two types of geographical costs:

    • Draw a picture that depicts an example of each of the following and include a brief caption explaining the picture:

    • Proximity to Input (does not have to be steel, just needs to be bulk-reducing)

    • Proximity to Market (needs to be gulk-gaining, single-market, and/or perishable)

    • Transport Choice (boat, train, automobile, plane))


    Site factors
    SITE FACTORS costs. Companies usually face two types of geographical costs:

    L

    A

    N

    D

    CAPITAL


    Labor
    LABOR costs. Companies usually face two types of geographical costs:

    • 150 million manufacturing workers (China-20%, U.S. – 10%)

    • Labor intensive vs. capital intensive (what is the difference?)

    • Wages (> $20/hr. in MDCs, <$5/hr in LDCs)

    • On a global scale ,labor is the most important site factor

    a lot of hard work does not always mean high pay


    Labor cont
    LABOR cont. costs. Companies usually face two types of geographical costs:

    TEXTILE & APPAREL SPINNING

    TEXTILE & APPAREL WEAVING

    Even more labor intensive than

    REALLY clustered in LDCs (they grow cotton and have low wages)

    Chemical industry changes textiles but also foods

    colors for clothing and preservation/canning for food

    • Labor intensive; low wage (highly clustered in LDCs – see p.381)

    • Spinsters and cottage industry before the Industrial Revolution

    • Becomes clustered industry during the 1700s (spinning frames and mills, located near flowing water)


    Cotton yarn production
    Cotton Yarn Production costs. Companies usually face two types of geographical costs:

    Fig. 11-14a: Production of cotton yarn from fiber is clustered in major cotton growing countries, including the U.S., China, India, Pakistan, and Russia.


    Distribution of cotton yarn production
    Distribution of Cotton Yarn Production costs. Companies usually face two types of geographical costs:

    Fig. 11-14b: Three-quarters of cotton yarn is produced in less developed countries.


    Woven cotton fabric production
    Woven Cotton Fabric Production costs. Companies usually face two types of geographical costs:

    Fig. 11-15a: Production of woven cotton fabric is labor intensive and is likely to be located in LDCs. China and India account for over 75% of world production.


    Labor cont1
    LABOR cont. costs. Companies usually face two types of geographical costs:

    TEXTILE & APPAREL ASSEMBLY

    • Textiles are assembled into 4 main products

      • Garments, carpets, home products, industrial uses

    • Most clothing articles are produced in Asia


    Trouser production
    Trouser Production costs. Companies usually face two types of geographical costs:

    Fig. 11-16a: Sewing cotton fabric into men’s and boys’ trousers is more likely to be located in developed countries, but much production now occurs in LDCs.


    Distribution of trouser production
    Distribution of Trouser Production costs. Companies usually face two types of geographical costs:

    Fig. 11-16b: The majority of trouser production is in MDCs, near customers.


    LAND costs. Companies usually face two types of geographical costs:

    • Not nearly as critical a factor as labor when considering only land (why not?)

    • It is only a critical factor when it takes into account resources (natural and human)


    Land cont
    LAND cont. costs. Companies usually face two types of geographical costs:

    • Prior to IR many economic activities were located near rivers and forests (why?)

    • During the IR they moved close to coalfields (clustered industry)

    • During the 20th century electricity has become more important to industry (want to be near cheaper electricity)


    Capital
    CAPITAL costs. Companies usually face two types of geographical costs:

    • Industries often borrow funds to build/expand

      (ex. motor vehicle industry in Michigan)

    • Availability of capital was key factor in the evolution of Silicon Valley

    • Ability to borrow has become increasingly important in LDCs


    1. An industry in which a large percentage of wages and benefits goes to employees is a _________________ type of industry.


    LABOR INTENSIVE benefits goes to employees is a _________________ type of industry.



    14% WORLD MANUFACTURING EMPLOYMENT.



    LDCs _____


    4. WHAT COUNTRY IS REPSONSIBLE FOR THE LARGEST PERCENTAGE OF THE WORLD’S COTTON THREAD AND WHAT IS THAT PERCENTAGE?


    CHINA and 46% OF THE WORLD’S COTTON THREAD AND WHAT IS THAT PERCENTAGE?


    5. TRUE/FALSE: ALMOST ALL SYNTHETIC FIBERS ARE NOW PRODUCED IN MDCs DUE TO THE TECHNOLOGY NEEDED TO PRODUCE THEM


    FALSE, IT’S ABOUT 50/50 BETWEEN MDCs AND LDCs IN MDCs DUE TO THE TECHNOLOGY NEEDED TO PRODUCE THEM



    TRUE SPINNING



    86% PRODUCED IN LDCs?


    8. What two countries account for the largest percentage of the world’s woven cotton and what is that combined percentage?


    CHINA (47%) AND INDIA (27%) the world’s woven cotton and what is that combined percentage?

    74%




    10. TRUE/FALSE - THE RECENT TREND FOR WOOL PRODUCTION IS THAT MORE AND MORE IS BEING PRODUCED IN NORTH AMERICA AND EUROPE THAN IN ASIA


    FALSE, JUST THE OPPOSITE THAT MORE AND MORE IS BEING PRODUCED IN NORTH AMERICA AND EUROPE THAN IN ASIA


    ISSUE #3 THAT MORE AND MORE IS BEING PRODUCED IN NORTH AMERICA AND EUROPE THAN IN ASIA

    Where is Industry Expanding?

    (shift from MDCs to LDCs)


    Intraregional shift
    INTRAREGIONAL SHIFT THAT MORE AND MORE IS BEING PRODUCED IN NORTH AMERICA AND EUROPE THAN IN ASIA

    • site and situation factors historically led to location of factories in cities (why?)

      • Proximity to market

      • Easier shipping on RRs

      • Labor supply

      • Source of capital

    • Modern factories - suburban or rural (why?)

      • Availability of space/land

      • Cheaper land

      • Access to highways more important than RRs


    Interregional shift
    INTERREGIONAL SHIFT THAT MORE AND MORE IS BEING PRODUCED IN NORTH AMERICA AND EUROPE THAN IN ASIA

    • U.S. – manufacturing has shifted south and west

    • Western Europe – shift towards “economically distressed peripheral areas” (southern and eastern Europe)


    Interregional cont
    INTERREGIONAL cont. THAT MORE AND MORE IS BEING PRODUCED IN NORTH AMERICA AND EUROPE THAN IN ASIA

    SOUTHERN & WESTERN U.S.

    WESTERN EUROPE

    Shift specifically towards southern and eastern Europe

    Difference with U.S. - European policies that have explicitly encouraged this relocation

    Spain – most rapid growth (motor vehicles)

    • NE – has lost 1 million manufacturing jobs in past 30 years

    • Those jobs have grown by 1/6 in the S and W in same time (why?)

      • Right to work laws

      • Lower wages

      • Improved infrastructure (roads)

      • Climate

      • Resources (water, oil, natural gas…)

      • Shipping lanes


    New industrial regions
    NEW INDUSTRIAL REGIONS THAT MORE AND MORE IS BEING PRODUCED IN NORTH AMERICA AND EUROPE THAN IN ASIA

    A

    S

    I

    A

    LATIN

    AMERICA

    CENTRAL

    EUROPE


    ASIA THAT MORE AND MORE IS BEING PRODUCED IN NORTH AMERICA AND EUROPE THAN IN ASIA

    • China is the world’s largest manufacturer of textiles/apparel, steel and many household product – what assets does it have?

      • Cheap labor and enormous consumer market

    • Other Asian nations have removed barriers to manufacturing investment by multinationals

      • Ex. Thailand Lowered tariff on imported vehicles

      • Shift from self-sufficiency model to int’l trade

    Rich China

    Poor China


    Steel production 1980
    Steel Production, 1980 THAT MORE AND MORE IS BEING PRODUCED IN NORTH AMERICA AND EUROPE THAN IN ASIA

    Fig. 11-19a: The U.S., Soviet Union, and Japan were the largest steel producers in 1980.


    World steel production 2005
    World Steel Production, 2005 THAT MORE AND MORE IS BEING PRODUCED IN NORTH AMERICA AND EUROPE THAN IN ASIA

    Fig. 11-19b: By 2005, steel production had increased in developing countries but declined in the more developed countries.


    Distribution of steel production 1980 2005
    Distribution of Steel Production THAT MORE AND MORE IS BEING PRODUCED IN NORTH AMERICA AND EUROPE THAN IN ASIA1980 & 2005

    Fig. 11-20: Developed countries accounted for 80% of world production in 1980 but only 45% in 2005. LDCs increased from 20% to 55%. China is now the world’s largest producer.


    Shanghai steel factory
    Shanghai Steel Factory THAT MORE AND MORE IS BEING PRODUCED IN NORTH AMERICA AND EUROPE THAN IN ASIA

    The Baoshan Iron Steel Company in Shanghai, China


    Latin america
    LATIN AMERICA THAT MORE AND MORE IS BEING PRODUCED IN NORTH AMERICA AND EUROPE THAN IN ASIA

    • Mexico and Brazil are region’s leading manufacturers

      • Clustered in Mexico City & Sao Paulo

    • Bad policies and oil shortages (‘60s and ‘70s) hurt Mexico

    • ‘80s – growth mainly in the north (maquiladora plants)

    • ‘80s – ’90s – new policies increased growth (lower tariffs, NAFTA…)

    • Mexico’s location to U.S. market is a big advantage

    1964 Ford Falcon


    Central europe
    CENTRAL EUROPE THAT MORE AND MORE IS BEING PRODUCED IN NORTH AMERICA AND EUROPE THAN IN ASIA

    • Since 1990 several countries between Germany and Russia have seen much growth (why?)

      • Labor (middle ground compared to West and Asia and Latin America)

      • Proximity to markets

      • Specifically :Hungary, Czech Republic and Poland have seen the most development


    ISSUE #4 THAT MORE AND MORE IS BEING PRODUCED IN NORTH AMERICA AND EUROPE THAN IN ASIA

    Why are Location Factors Changing?

    (attraction of new regions and renewed attraction of traditional regions)


    Attraction of new industrial regions proximity to low cost labor
    ATTRACTION OF NEW INDUSTRIAL REGIONS: THAT MORE AND MORE IS BEING PRODUCED IN NORTH AMERICA AND EUROPE THAN IN ASIAPROXIMITY TO LOW-COST LABOR

    • Labor is the site factor that is changing very dramatically in recent years

    • Shift to low wage locations takes place within nations and between them (esp. in textile/apparel industry)

    • Ex. In U.S. – textile industry locates in New York during the early 20th century (why?) then moves to southeast in the mid-20th century(why?)

    • Many have moved manufacturing overseas due to even cheaper labor

      • Decrease in apparel workers in U.S. and WE

      • Apparel imports in U.S. have increased (from Latin America, China, other Asian nations)


    Sock hosiery manufacturing
    Sock & Hosiery Manufacturing THAT MORE AND MORE IS BEING PRODUCED IN NORTH AMERICA AND EUROPE THAN IN ASIA

    Fig. 11-21: Men’s and women’s socks and hosiery manufacturers usually locate near a low-cost labor force, such as found in the southeastern U.S.


    Labor cost per hour mdcs and ldcs
    Labor Cost per Hour THAT MORE AND MORE IS BEING PRODUCED IN NORTH AMERICA AND EUROPE THAN IN ASIAMDCs and LDCs

    Fig. 11-22: Hourly wages can be under $1 in many LDCs compared to well over $10 in many MDCs.


    U s clothing production 1994 2005
    U.S. Clothing Production THAT MORE AND MORE IS BEING PRODUCED IN NORTH AMERICA AND EUROPE THAN IN ASIA1994 - 2005

    Fig. 11-23: The percent of U.S. made clothing has declined sharply since the 1990s while imports have increased.


    Outsourcing
    OUTSOURCING THAT MORE AND MORE IS BEING PRODUCED IN NORTH AMERICA AND EUROPE THAN IN ASIA

    • Transnationals in particular seek cheaper labor

      • Role of new international division of labor

    • outsourcing vs. vertical integration

    • Outsourcing’s impact on the distribution of manufacturing


    Renewed interest in traditional regions proximity to skilled labor
    RENEWED INTEREST IN TRADITIONAL REGIONS: THAT MORE AND MORE IS BEING PRODUCED IN NORTH AMERICA AND EUROPE THAN IN ASIAPROXIMITY TO SKILLED LABOR

    • Switch from Fordist to post-Fordist has increased need for more skilled labor

      • Skilled labor is usually located in traditional industrial regions

      • 3 types of post-Fordist work rules (teams, problem solving, leveling)

    • Computer industry is good example of industry in traditional region

    • Some textile/apparel still exists in traditional regions too

      • “High end” requires more skill

      • Efforts to attract jobs to traditional states in U.S. (startup NY commercial)


    Computing equipment manufacture
    Computing Equipment Manufacture THAT MORE AND MORE IS BEING PRODUCED IN NORTH AMERICA AND EUROPE THAN IN ASIA

    Fig. 11-24: High skill workers are needed for manufacture of computing equipment. California, the Northeast, and Texas are the major sites.


    Women s and girls apparel
    Women’s and Girls’ Apparel THAT MORE AND MORE IS BEING PRODUCED IN NORTH AMERICA AND EUROPE THAN IN ASIA

    Fig 11-25: Products that require more skilled workers are still produced in or near New York City. Other items are produced in sites with lower cost labor.


    Just in time delivery
    JUST-IN-TIME DELIVERY THAT MORE AND MORE IS BEING PRODUCED IN NORTH AMERICA AND EUROPE THAN IN ASIA

    • This is especially important for delivery of inputs

      • Ex. Parts for cars, computers

    • Just-in-time delivery reduces money spent on wasteful inventory and size of factory

      • U.S. % of economy spent on inventory has decreased by 50% in last 25 years

      • Dell and Gateway have eliminated inventory (how? why?)

    • Sometimes forces suppliers to hold inventory, not the shop (ex. Wal-Mart)

    • Makes manufactures more susceptible to disruptions when they rely heavily on JITD

      • Labor unrest

      • “acts of God” (weather, acts of terror)


    Fedex sorting and loading
    Fedex THAT MORE AND MORE IS BEING PRODUCED IN NORTH AMERICA AND EUROPE THAN IN ASIA Sorting and Loading

    Packages picked up by Fedex are transferred to planes, flown to sorting centers, transferred to other planes and flown to other cities, then loaded onto trucks for delivery the next day.


    Chapter 11 review

    Chapter THAT MORE AND MORE IS BEING PRODUCED IN NORTH AMERICA AND EUROPE THAN IN ASIA11 REVIEW


    11.02 By the late nineteenth century, this country had made the least progress toward industrialization:

    1. Russia

    2. France

    3. Germany

    4. Belgium

    5. United States


    11.02 By the late nineteenth century, this country had made the least progress toward industrialization:

    1. Russia

    2. France

    3. Germany

    4. Belgium

    5. United States


    11.03 Industrialization in the United States began in the

    1. California

    2. The Midwest

    3. The Middle Atlantic states

    4. New England

    5. The South


    11.03 Industrialization in the United States began in the

    1. California

    2. The Midwest

    3. The Middle Atlantic states

    4. New England

    5. The South


    11.04 Beer brewing is the

    1. A bulk-gaining industry

    2. A bulk-reducing industry

    3. Unconcerned with bulk

    4. Distributed fairly evenly around the United States

    5. Unaffected by site factors


    11.04 Beer brewing is the

    1. A bulk-gaining industry

    2. A bulk-reducing industry

    3. Unconcerned with bulk

    4. Distributed fairly evenly around the United States

    5. Unaffected by site factors


    11.05 Which of the following statements about the manufacture of American cars is true?

    1. There are relatively few plants in the South

    2. Each plant focuses on only one or a few models

    3. Plants are located near each major metropolitan area

    4. Plants are more dispersed now than they were in the 1950s

    5. American cars face little foreign competition


    11.05 Which of the following statements about the manufacture of American cars is true?

    1. There are relatively few plants in the South

    2. Each plant focuses on only one or a few models

    3. Plants are located near each major metropolitan area

    4. Plants are more dispersed now than they were in the 1950s

    5. American cars face little foreign competition


    11.06 The cheapest way to transport goods over long distances is by

    1. Air

    2. Roadway

    3. Rail

    4. Water

    5. None of these


    11.06 The cheapest way to transport goods over long distances is by

    1. Air

    2. Roadway

    3. Rail

    4. Water

    5. None of these


    11.07 Which type of manufacturing requires the lowest level of skill?

    1. Automobiles

    2. Computers

    3. Textiles

    4. Airplanes

    5. Consumer electronics


    11.07 Which type of manufacturing requires the lowest level of skill?

    1. Automobiles

    2. Computers

    3. Textiles

    4. Airplanes

    5. Consumer electronics


    11.08 It is especially important for aluminum processors to locate near

    1. Navigable rivers

    2. Cheap electricity

    3. Inexpensive labor

    4. Major metropolitan areas

    5. Beer breweries


    11.08 It is especially important for aluminum processors to locate near

    1. Navigable rivers

    2. Cheap electricity

    3. Inexpensive labor

    4. Major metropolitan areas

    5. Beer breweries


    11.09 Within the United States, manufacturing has been most likely to shift in which of the following directions?

    1. North

    2. Northeast

    3. East

    4. South

    5. Manufacturing has tended to stay in the Midwest and Northeast


    11.09 Within the United States, manufacturing has been most likely to shift in which of the following directions?

    1. North

    2. Northeast

    3. East

    4. South

    5. Manufacturing has tended to stay in the Midwest and Northeast


    11.10 Outsourcing likely to shift in which of the following directions?

    1. Is one aspect of vertical integration

    2. Has not yet become important for transnational corporations

    3. Leads to an increase in manufacturing jobs in less developed countries

    4. Is supported my most American politicians

    5. Is prohibited by the World Trade Organization


    11.10 Outsourcing likely to shift in which of the following directions?

    1. Is one aspect of vertical integration

    2. Has not yet become important for transnational corporations

    3. Leads to an increase in manufacturing jobs in less developed countries

    4. Is supported my most American politicians

    5. Is prohibited by the World Trade Organization


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