COMPUTER
Download
1 / 19

Based on text: David A. Patterson John L. Hennessy, Computer Organization and Design: The Hardware - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 111 Views
  • Uploaded on

COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE. Introduction. (Based on text: David A. Patterson & John L. Hennessy, Computer Organization and Design: The Hardware/Software Interface , 3 rd Ed., Morgan Kaufmann, 2007 ). COURSE CONTENTS. Introduction Instructions Computer Arithmetic Performance

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Based on text: David A. Patterson John L. Hennessy, Computer Organization and Design: The Hardware' - morley


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

COMPUTER

ARCHITECTURE

Introduction

(Based on text: David A. Patterson & John L. Hennessy, Computer Organization and Design: The Hardware/Software Interface, 3rd Ed., Morgan Kaufmann, 2007)


Course contents
COURSE CONTENTS

  • Introduction

  • Instructions

  • Computer Arithmetic

  • Performance

  • Processor: Datapath

  • Processor: Control

  • Pipelining Techniques

  • Memory

  • Input/Output Devices


Introduction

INTRODUCTION

Overview the Computer Systems

Evolution of Memory and Processor

Historical Perspective

Levels of Representation


A desktop computer
A Desktop Computer

  • A desktop computer (left figure)

  • Motherboard, I/O interface board, board for memory chips, power supply, disk drives (right figure)


Inside a pc
Inside a PC

Patterson & Henessey, Morgan Kaufmann 2007


Pc motherboard
PC Motherboard

  • Intel Pentium 4 processor - upper left, covered by metal fins (heat sink)

  • Main memory DRAM – middle, small board perpendicular to mother board (DIMMs)

  • The rest – mostly connectors for external I/O devices


Processor chip 1

Branch

Control

Data

cache

Integer

data-

path

Instruction

cache

Bus

Floating-

point

data-path

Processor Chip - 1

  • Earlier Intel Pentium Chip


Processor chip 2
Processor Chip - 2

  • Intel Pentium 4

Intel Pentium 4 – die photo (Henessey & Patterson, Morgan Kaufmann 2003)

Intel Pentium 4 with 3 GHz - package (intel 2003)


Processor chip 3
Processor Chip - 3

  • Intel Pentium 4


Hardware software

Application software

System software

Hardware

Hardware / Software

  • Hardware: physical components

  • System software: operating system, compiler, ....

  • Application software: PowerPoint, spreadsheet, ...


Five classic components of a computer network

CPU

Datapath

Output

Input

Memory

Control

Five Classic Components of a Computer + Network

  • Datapath: performs arithmetic & logic operation

  • Control: tells datapath, memory, I/O what to do according to instructions

  • Memory: stores programs + datacache (SRAM): small & fastDRAM: main memoryoptical disk (CD, DVD), magnetic disk, FLASH, magnetic tapes: secondary, nonvolatile

  • Input: inputs instructions, data, etc.; e.g. keyboard, mouse (electromech  optical), disk...

  • Output: outputs results, information, etc.; e.g. monitor (flat-panel LCDs or CRT), printer, disk, …

  • Network: communicates with other computers, resource sharing, non-local accesses; e.g. LAN, Internet, ...

Network


A historical perspective
A Historical Perspective

  • 1946:J. Presper Eckert & John Mauchly (U. Penn.) announced ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator). It used vacuum tubes and performed 1900 adds/sec

  • John von Neumann joined Eckert & Mauchly and built EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer), a stored-program computer

  • 1948: U. Manchester built Mark-I, first operational, stored-program computer

  • 1949: Maurice Wilkes (Camb. U.) built EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator), first full-scale, operational, stored-program computer

  • 1940s: Other pioneers include Konrad Zuse (Germany), Alan Turing (UK)

  • 1940s: Howard Aiken (Harvard) built Mark-III & Mark-IV, with separate memories for instructions & data, hence Harvard Architecture

  • 1947: Whirlwind started at MIT, using magnetic core memory

  • 1951: 1st successful commercial computer, UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer), built and sold (Remington-Rand / Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corp.)

  • 1952: IBM shipped IBM 701


A historical perspective1
A Historical Perspective

  • 1964:IBM Syst/360. IBM/360 architectures dominated large computer market

  • 1965: DEC unveiled PDP-8, 1st commercial minicomputer

  • 1971: Intel invented 1st microprocessor, Intel 4004

  • 1963: Seymour Cray at CDC announced CDC 6600, 1st supercomputer

  • 1976:Cray announced Cray-I, then fastest supercomputer

  • No single fountainhead for personal computer

  • 1977: Apple II by Steve Jobs & Steve Wozniak set stds for low cost high volume

  • 1981: IBM announced IBM PC and became the best-selling computer of any kind; its success gave Intel the most popular microprocessor and Microsoft the most popular operating system

  • 1990s: Multimedia, networks, Internet, embedded processors, graphics, etc.

  • 2000 - : Wireless & mobile (e.g. cell phone), 3-D graphics, multimedia (e.g. video), Internet, GHz processors, embedded, dual-core, quad-core, multi-core, etc.

  • 90s, 2000 - :Architectural techniques: Superscalar, dynamic pipelining, speculative execution, VLIW, multithreading, multi-core arch, etc.


Intel 80x86 history
Intel 80x86 History

  • 1978: Intel announced 8086 16-bit architecture (an extension to 8080 8-bit)

  • 1980: Intel announced 8087 floating point co-processor

  • 1982: Intel announced 80286, with address-space extended to 24 bits

  • 1985: Intel announced 80386, a 32-bit architecture

  • 1989: Intel 80486, with improved performance, pipelining

  • 1992: Intel Pentium, improved performance

  • 1995: Intel Pentium Pro, improved performance (> 100 MHz)

  • 1997: MMX extension, set of instructions to accelerate multimedia & communication applications

  • 1998: Intel Pentium II

  • 1999: Intel Pentium III

  • 2000: Intel Pentium III > 1 GHz, competition from AMD, Pentium IV (11/00)

  • 2002: Intel Pentium IV > 3 GHz (3.06 GHz) with multithreading and 0.13 micron technology

  • 2005: Intel Pentium D (dual-core version of Pentium 4 Extreme) - 2 independent execution units onto same processor

  • 2006-07: Intel Quad-Core, 65 nm technology



Technology trends 2
Technology Trends - 2

  • Moore’s law: transistor capacity doubles every 18-24 months


Multithreading multi core cpus
Multithreading & Multi-core CPUs

  • Threads (threads of execution) - a programforks itself into 2 or more simultaneously (or pseudo-simultaneously) running tasks

  • Multiple threadscan be executed in parallel on many computers:

    • Single processor - by time slicing when a single processor switches between different threads, so fast as to give the illusion of simultaneity

    • Multiprocessor or multi-core system - achieved via multiprocessing, different threads & processes run simultaneously on different processors or cores.

  • Multi-core CPUs:

    • Multi-chip approach - cores are made by different chips that are put together in a single package. Cores communicate using front side bus. L2 cache is separated

    • Monolithic approach - Cores are manufactured in only one chip, do not need to use front side bus. Memory cache is shared between the two cores. Better performance


Levels of representation

Assembler

Linker

Loader

Object: Machine language modu.

Executable: Machine language prog.

Levels of Representation

  • temp = v[k];v[k] = v[k+1];v[k+1] = temp;

  • lw $15, 0($2)lw $16, 4($2)sw $16, 0($2)sw $15, 4($2)

  • 00000000101000010000000000011000

High level language program

Compiler

Assembly language program

Object: Library routine (machine lang.)

Memory


SUMMARY

  • Overview the computer systems

  • Five classic components of a computer

  • Evolution of memory and processor

  • Computer technology trends

  • Levels of representation


ad