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K-2 ELA. Text Complexity and. Nancy Frey, PhD. Text-dependent Questions. If you can read this…. If you can read this… Thank a teacher! . If you can read this…

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Text complexity and

K-2 ELA

Text Complexityand

Nancy Frey, PhD

Text-dependent Questions



If you can read this…

Thank a teacher!


If you can read this…

effectively and write a analytical essay in under 42 minutes, and you meet all the math standards, objectives, and learning targets set forth by the Common Core State Standards, and you walk briskly through life in a healthy body taking 10,000 steps a day, while experiencing social and emotional well being, and you can effectively utilize technology and social media to access and analyze important information, and you play the piano perfectly…


If you can read this…

effectively and write a analytical essay in under 42 minutes, and you meet all the math standards, objectives, and learning targets set forth by the Common Core State Standards, and you walk briskly through life in a healthy body taking 10,000 steps a day, while experiencing social and emotional well being, and you can effectively utilize technology and social media to access and analyze important information, and you play the piano perfectly…

Thank a teacher!



Skilled learners

are nurtured.


Skilled leaders

need to be nurtured, too.


Write as many entries on the ABC chart as possible while the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!

Take Six


Take Six the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!

Terms related to the ELA Common Core State Standards (e.g., “text-dependent questions”)


C the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!ompare papers with your partner and add terms to your own. How many terms did you collectively gather?

Take Six


10 the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!. Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.


“Standard the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!10 defines a grade-by-grade

‘staircase’ of increasing text complexity that rises from beginning reading

to the college and career readiness level.” (CCSS, 2010, p. 80)


the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!Fewer, Clearer, Higher”


Key Features of the Standards the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!


Key Features of the Standards the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!

Text complexity and the

growth of comprehension.


Key Features of the Standards the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!

Text complexity and the

growth of comprehension.

Text types, responding to reading, and research.


Key Features of the Standards the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!

Text complexity and the

growth of comprehension.

Text types, responding to reading, and research.

Flexible communication and collaboration.


Key Features of the Standards the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!

Text complexity and the

growth of comprehension.

Text types, responding to reading, and research.

Flexible communication and collaboration.

Academic language, vocabulary, and effective use.


Key Features of the Standards the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!

Text complexity and the

growth of comprehension.

Text types, responding to reading, and research.

Flexible communication and collaboration.

Academic language, vocabulary, and effective use.

All must be present for literacy learning.


the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!Read like a detective, write like a reporter.”


K-5 Reading Standards the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!


Expository the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!


Expository the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!

Persuasive


Expository the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!

Persuasive

Narrative


Students the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!produce as well as read complex texts.


Quantitative Measures the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!


Quantitative Measures the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!

Use quantitative info to identify grade bands.


Qualitative Values the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!


Levels of Meaning and Purpose the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!

  • Density and complexity

  • Figurative language

  • Purpose


Density and complexity
Density and Complexity the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!

Gibbons, G. (1996). Recycle! A handbook for kids.New York; Little, Brown.


Types of vocabulary
Types of Vocabulary the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!

  • Tier 1/General

    • Commonplace; learned from interactions with texts and people

  • Tier 2/Specialized

    • Change meaning with context (“polysemic”)

  • Tier 3/Technical

    • Specific to the discipline


Density and complexity1
Density and Complexity the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!

  • More and more garbage! Every daypeople throw more trash away. As the world population increases, more people throw trash away. Garbage trucks come to pick it up, but where does all this trash go?

  • Blue = Tier 1 vocabulary

    Gibbons, G. (1996). Recycle! A handbook for kids.New York; Little, Brown.


Density and complexity2
Density and Complexity the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!

  • More and more garbage! Every daypeoplethrow more trash away. As the world population increases, more people throw trash away. Garbage trucks come to pick it up, but where does all this trash go?

  • Blue = Tier 1 vocabulary

  • Green = Tier 2 vocabulary

    Gibbons, G. (1996). Recycle! A handbook for kids.New York; Little, Brown.


Density and complexity3
Density and Complexity the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!

  • More and more garbage! Every daypeoplethrow more trash away. As the worldpopulationincreases, more people throw trash away. Garbage truckscome to pick it up, but where does all this trash go?

  • Blue = Tier 1 vocabulary

  • Green = Tier 2 vocabulary

  • Red = Tier 3 vocabulary

    Gibbons, G. (1996). Recycle! A handbook for kids.New York; Little, Brown.


Structure the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!

  • Genre

  • Organization

  • Narration

  • Text features and graphics


Structure the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!

Changes in narration, point of view

Changes in font signal narration changes

Complex themes


Language Conventions the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!

  • Standard English and variations

  • Register


Language Conventions the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!

Non-standard English usage

“Out in the hottest, dustiest part of town is an orphanage run by a female person nasty enough to scare night into day. She goes by the name of Mrs. Sump, though I doubt there ever was a Mr. Sump on accounta she looks like somethin’ the cat drug in and the dog wouldn’t eat.”

(Stanley, 1996, p. 2)


Knowledge Demands the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!

  • Background knowledge

  • Prior knowledge

  • Cultural knowledge

  • Vocabulary


Knowledge Demands the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!

Prior experience (Secondary text on technical directions and related information )

Background knowledge (technical drawings and directions for making a paper airplane, invention process, mythology)


Qualitative Values the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!

Use qualitative values to identify specific grade levels.


Task and reader
Task and Reader the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!


Our goal with complex text is to the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!slow the reader down.


Annotation the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6! is a note of any form made while reading text.

“Reading with a pencil.”



Annotation is texts to annotate.not highlighting.


Annotation texts to annotate.slows down the reader in order to deepen understanding.


Annotation occurs with texts to annotate.digital and print texts.


Annotation in texts to annotate.Kindergarten

  • Language experience approach

  • Interactive writing and shared pen activities


1 texts to annotate.

2

3

4

5

Modeled Annotation in Kindergarten

Kemp, L. M. (1996). One peaceful pond: A counting book. New York: Houghton Mifflin.


Modeled Annotation in Second texts to annotate.

Harvey, S., & Goudvis, A. (2007). Strategies That Work: Teaching Comprehension for Understanding and Engagement. Portland, ME: Stenhouse.



Read IRA’s Guidance on Literacy Implementation for CCSS. texts to annotate.

What are the implications for your school?

Are there misconceptions your staff might hold?

How will you deepen their understanding of literacy development?


Close Reading texts to annotate.


“X-ray the book” texts to annotate.


Not every reading is a close one! texts to annotate.

“X-ray the book”


In the primary grades, close reading is accomplished through interactive read aloudsand shared readings.



S hort passage

Creating a Close Reading


S hort passage

Complex text

Creating a Close Reading


S hort passage

Complex text

Limited frontloading

Creating a Close Reading


S hort passage

Complex text

Limited frontloading

Repeated readings

Creating a Close Reading


The Role of Pre-reading

Multiple readings often make this unnecessary


The Role of Pre-reading

  • Too often provides information students can glean from careful reading of the text

  • Hard to wean students from this

  • Similarly challenging to move teachers away from providing this “smoothing of the road”

Multiple readings often make this unnecessary


S hort passage

Complex text

Limited frontloading

Repeated readings

Text-dependent questions

Creating a Close Reading


Characteristics of Text-dependent questions


Characteristics of Text-dependent questions

  • Questions that can only be answered with evidence from the text

  • Can be literal but can also involve analysis, synthesis, evaluation

  • Focus on word, sentence and paragraph as well as larger ideas, themes or events

  • Focus on difficult portions of text in order to enhance reading proficiency


Progression of text dependent questions
Progression of Text-dependent Questions

Whole

Acrosstexts

Entire text

Segments

Paragraph

Sentence

Word

Part


General understandings
General Understandings

  • Overall view

  • Sequence of information

  • Story arc

  • Main claim and evidence

  • Gist of passage


General understandings in kindergarten
General Understandings in Kindergarten

Retell the story in order using the words beginning, middle, and end.


Key details
Key Details

  • Search for nuances in meaning

  • Determine importance of ideas

  • Find supporting details that support main ideas

  • Answers who, what, when, where, why, how much, or how many.


Key details in kindergarten
Key Details in Kindergarten

  • How long did it take to go from a hatched egg to a butterfly?

  • What is one food that gave him a stomachache? What is one food that did not him a stomachache?


It took more than 3 weeks. He ate for one week, and then “he stayed inside [his cocoon] for more than two weeks.”


Foods that did not give him a stomachache “he stayed inside [his cocoon] for more than two weeks.”

Chocolate cake

Ice cream

Pickle

Swiss cheese

Salami

Lollipop

Cherry pie

Sausage

Cupcake

watermelon

Foods that gave him a stomachache

  • Apples

  • Pears

  • Plums

  • Strawberries

  • Oranges

  • Green leaf


Vocabulary and text structure
Vocabulary and Text Structure “he stayed inside [his cocoon] for more than two weeks.”

  • Bridges literal and inferential meanings

  • Denotation

  • Connotation

  • Shades of meaning

  • Figurative language

  • How organization contributes to meaning


Vocabulary in kindergarten
Vocabulary in Kindergarten “he stayed inside [his cocoon] for more than two weeks.”

How does the author help us to understand what cocoon means?


There is an “he stayed inside [his cocoon] for more than two weeks.”illustration of the cocoon, and a sentence that reads, “He built a small house, called a cocoon, around himself.”


Author s purpose
Author’s Purpose “he stayed inside [his cocoon] for more than two weeks.”

  • Genre: Entertain? Explain? Inform? Persuade?

  • Point of view: First-person, third-person limited, omniscient, unreliable narrator

  • Critical Literacy: Whose story is not represented?


Author s purpose in kindergarten
Author’s Purpose in Kindergarten “he stayed inside [his cocoon] for more than two weeks.”

Who tells the story—the narrator or the caterpillar?


A narrator tells the story, because he uses the words “he stayed inside [his cocoon] for more than two weeks.”he and his. If it was the caterpillar, he would say I and my.


Inferences
Inferences “he stayed inside [his cocoon] for more than two weeks.”

Probe each argument in persuasive text, each idea in informational text, each key detail in literary text, and observe how these build to a whole.


Inferences in kindergarten
Inferences in Kindergarten “he stayed inside [his cocoon] for more than two weeks.”

The title of the book is The Very Hungry Caterpillar. How do we know he is hungry?


The caterpillar ate food every day “but he was still hungry.” On Saturday he ate so much food he got a stomachache! Then he was “a big, fat caterpillar” so he could build a cocoon and turn into a butterfly.


Opinions arguments and intertextual connections
Opinions, Arguments, and hungry.” On Saturday he ate so much food he got a stomachache! Then he was “a big, fat caterpillar” so he could build a cocoon and turn into a butterfly. Intertextual Connections

  • Author’s opinion and reasoning (K-5)

  • Claims

  • Evidence

  • Counterclaims

  • Ethos, Pathos, Logos

  • Rhetoric

    Links to other texts throughout the grades


Opinions and intertextual connections in kindergarten
Opinions hungry.” On Saturday he ate so much food he got a stomachache! Then he was “a big, fat caterpillar” so he could build a cocoon and turn into a butterfly. and Intertextual Connections in Kindergarten

Narrative

Informational

How are these two books similar? How are they different?

Is this a happy story or a sad one? How do you know?


Lesson design hungry.” On Saturday he ate so much food he got a stomachache! Then he was “a big, fat caterpillar” so he could build a cocoon and turn into a butterfly.

How does purpose and meaningful collaborative work fit into this lesson?


Don’t over-teach. Students with disabilities and English learners have the right to appropriately struggle!


Accommodations for close reading
Accommodations for Close Reading learners have the right to

  • Provide students with copies of text-dependent questions in advance of reading.

  • Pre-teach reading, especially background knowledge and cognates.

  • Provide realia or visual glossaries to support student learning.

  • Highlight contextual clues.


Develop text dependent questions for your reading
Develop learners have the right to Text-dependent Questions for Your Reading

  • Do the questions require the reader to return to the text?

  • Do the questions require the reader to use evidence to support his or her ideas or claims?

  • Do the questions move from text-explicit to text-implicit knowledge?

  • Are there questions that require the reader to analyze, evaluate, and create?


293 learners have the right to days until Moving Day


Fostering transition to ccss
Fostering Transition to CCSS learners have the right to

  • How will you shift attention to curriculum, while preserving quality instruction?

  • How will teams make decisions about what to edit, and what to add in curriculum?

  • How will teams learn how to reduce some practices (e.g., pre-reading), and add new practices (e.g., close reading)?


Using Foundational Work to Build Upon learners have the right to

How will you use this foundational knowledge to build capacity? What resources do you have? What do you need?


www.fisherandfrey.com learners have the right to


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