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Chapter 9 . Principles of Learning . Principles of Learning . You walk into a kitchen and smell your favorite food. - What physically happens to you? - What happens mentally? . What is learning? . Learning

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Chapter 9

Chapter 9

Principles of Learning


Principles of learning
Principles of Learning

You walk into a kitchen and smell your favorite food.

- What physically happens to you?

- What happens mentally?


What is learning
What is learning?

Learning

- lasting changes in behavior that occur as a result of practice or past experiences

- acquiring the ability to do something that you haven’t done before

- use an ability in a different way


Not all behavior is learned

- reflex

  • blinking when a puff of air hits your eye

  • crawling

  • changes in voice (adolescent boys)


Classical conditioning
Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning

- learning situation in which a certain stimulus brings forth a response that it did not previously evoke

- Ivan Pavlov

  • studies the salivating of dogs

  • How did the experiment work?


Classical conditioning1
Classical Conditioning

The Experiment

- a dog was placed in an apparatus that would measure the flow of saliva when being presented with food

- a tube was attached to the mouth to measure saliva

- powdered meat was placed in the dogs mouth


Classical conditioning2
Classical Conditioning

Pavlov’s Dogs

- Unconditioned Response (UCR): Flow of saliva

  • occurs normally with no learning necessary

    - Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS): the meat

  • normal, unlearned agent for causing salivation


Classical conditioning3
Classical Conditioning

What is the natural response to each stimulus listed below? (What happens)

Stimulus -------------------------------------------------------------------Response

- a dog sees food ------------------------------>

- a baby hears a loud unfamiliar noise ------------------------>

- you put your hand on a lit candle --------------------------->

- your teacher yells at you ----------------------------->

Are the responses you wrote conditioned or unconditioned? Why?

Design your own example of an unconditioned stimulus followed by an unconditional response (something you do automatically).

Stimulus: ____________________ Response: _____________________


Classical conditioning4
Classical Conditioning

Pavlov’s Dogs

- Next, Pavlov rang a bell just and gave the dog the meat immediately after

- Then he sounded the bell without giving the dog the meat

  • he found that the dog still salivated even though the dog was not given the meat

    - Conditioned Stimulus (CS): sound of the bell

  • a new stimulus that originally did not cause a response

    - Conditioned Response (CR): salivating at the sound of the bell

  • a similar response to a new stimuli


Classical conditioning5
Classical Conditioning

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hhqumfpxuzI (Pavlov’s Dogs)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nE8pFWP5QDM (The Office)


Classical conditioning6
Classical Conditioning

In the following examples, the unconditioned stimulus is paired repeatedly with a neutral stimulus. What is the response to the pair stimuli?

Unconditioned Stimulus + Neutral Stimulus = Response

1. a dog sees food a bell rings =

2. a baby hears a loud a toy appears = unfamiliar noise

3. a hand is raised to slap a light flashes = your face

4. you put your hand on a door slams = a lit candle

5. You teacher yells at the teacher you taps a pencil =


Classical conditioning7
Classical Conditioning

Are the responses you wrote conditioned or unconditioned? Why?

Design your own example of an unconditioned stimulus that is paired with a neutral stimulus and generate a response.

USC _________________ + NS __________________= R ________________


Classical conditioning8
Classical Conditioning

Conditioned Response

- What is the Conditioned Response (CR) to each of the conditioned stimulus (CS)?

Conditioned Stimulus Conditioned Response

1. the dog hears a bell --------------------->

2. a baby gets a toy ------------------------>

3. a light flashes ---------------------------->

4. a door slams ----------------------------->

5. your teacher taps a pencil ----------->

Are the responses you wrote conditioned or unconditioned? Why?

Design your own using your previous example.


Homework and quiz
HOMEWORK and QUIZ

WS: Learning to Learn WS: Classical Conditioning Examples

QUIZ TOMORROW!


Classical conditioning9
Classical Conditioning

Counter-Conditioning

- conditioning the stimulus to a different response

- used to get rid of certain, unwanted behaviors

- EX: alcohol - can be given a drug that makes a person nauseous

- criticized for NOT treating the cause, just the symptoms

EX: weight loss

Avoidance Conditioning

- when an organism is taught to to avoid a stimulus


Classical conditioning10
Classical Conditioning

Baby Albert Experiment

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9hBfnXACsOI


Classical conditioning11
Classical Conditioning

Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery

- extinction: when the learner stops responding to a stimuli

  • is not always permanent

    • EX: War veterans

      - spontaneous recovery: reappearance of the conditioned response without reinforcement after a period of extinction


Classical conditioning12
Classical Conditioning

Reinforcement

- presenting the UCS immediately after the CS

- faster learning

- Intermittent Reinforcement: occasional rather than continuous reinforcement

  • EX: Gambler


Classical conditioning13
Classical Conditioning

Intermittent Reinforcement Schedules

- ratio schedule: depends on the number of correct responses

  • 2 types

    • fixed ratio: reinforced after a set number of correct responses (every 5th correct response)

    • variable ratio: number of responses between reinforcement varies

      - interval schedule: reinforcement is determined between responses (TIME)

  • 2 types

    • fixed interval: response is reinforced after a set number of times

    • variable interval: time varies throughout the conditioning process


Classical conditioning14
Classical Conditioning

Generalizations

- a conditioned response to stimuli similar to the original stimuli

EX: different tones to Pavlov’s dogs

Discrimination

- tendency to respond to a particular stimulus one way and respond to a similar one another way

EX: the term “Daddy” being applied to a particular person


Operant conditioning
Operant Conditioning

Suppose you want to train your dog. How would you train your dog to sit? or fetch?

Operant conditioning - strengthening a stimulus-response relationship by following the response with reinforcement


Operant conditioning1
Operant Conditioning

Classical Conditioning vs. Operant Conditioning

stimulus -> reinforcement -> response stimulus -> response -> reinforcement

Reinforcement is given before the Reinforcement followed a correct responseresponse and helps cause the response

Subject is passive and reacts only when a Subject is active and operates on the stimulus is introduced environment

The specific unconditioned stimulus is The specific unconditioned stimulus is unknown unknown


Operant conditioning2
Operant Conditioning

Programmed Learning

- an instruction method that uses the operant conditioning techniques of presenting an organism with a stimulus

  • organism responds and receives reinforcement for a correct response

    Video: Big Bang Theory

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mt4N9GSBoMI


Operant conditioning3
Operant Conditioning

WS: Operant Conditioning

WS: How do we learn?

Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B8vIbuoktew


Operant conditioning4
Operant Conditioning

Shaping Experiment

- I need a volunteer to leave the classroom for a minute….

- Shaping

  • the experimenter rewards an organism each time it makes a response that is close to the desired response


Reinforcement
Reinforcement

Positive Reinforcement

- strengthens a response by its presence

- operant conditioning relies on reinforcement

Negative Reinforcement

- strengthens a response with its absence

- a reverse reward


Reinforcement1
Reinforcement

Secondary Reinforcement

- a stimulus that has been associated w/ something that satisfies a need

- EX: Money

  • to maintain a family, individuals must provide food, clothing, shelter etc.

    • Money does not give them these things but they can buy the things with money


Reinforcement2
Reinforcement

Role of Punishment

- Punishment: providing negative stimulus after a behavior has occurred


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