Ratifying the constitution
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Ratifying the Constitution. Chapter 3 Section 3. Do Now. What is the purpose of government? Consider why governments are put in place and what society would be like without a government. Introduction.

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Ratifying the Constitution

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Ratifying the Constitution

Chapter 3 Section 3


Do Now

  • What is the purpose of government?

    • Consider why governments are put in place and what society would be like without a government.


Introduction

  • As the Convention ended in Philadelphia, delegates rushed home to begin the campaign for ratification.

  • Each state elected a convention to vote on the constitution.

    • Nine states had vote for document to ratify it.

  • Americans debated in state legislatures, in mass meetings, newspapers, and in everyday conversations.


Federalists vs. Anti-federalist

  • Federalists – supported Constitutional ratification

    • Name emphasized that the constitution would create a federal system

    • Believed power should be divide among central and state governments.

    • They hoped smaller states would understand that each state would keep some power

    • Included large landowners, merchants, and artisans

      • The wanted government protection and taxes on imports

    • Farmers along the coast supported the Constitution which would regulate trade and protect prices.


Anti-Federalists

  • Misleading name – not against federalism

  • Accepted the need for a national gov.

  • Real issued was if central or state governments would have more power.

  • Prominent Anti-Federalists included John Hancock, Patrick Henry, of Virginia, and George Clinton, gov. of New York, (Edmund Randolph and George Mason believed constitution should include a bill of rights)

    • Sam Adams believe it impinged on the rights of the states

  • Many were western farmers living far from coast, self sufficient, and believed it may foreclose their farms


The Federalist (Essays)

  • Several factors worked against the Anti-federalists

    • They complained but did not offer a solution

    • Federalists were also better organized

  • Federalists offered ideas in pamphlets, speeches and debates in state conventions.

  • The Federalist – 85 essays written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay (under the pen name Publius)

    • Published New York Newspapers before publishing them as the Federalist book

    • Explained how the new US Constitution worked and why it was needed

    • Even today judges, lawyers, legislators, and historians read the Federalist to help them interpret the Constitution


Battle for Ratification

  • Federalist knew they had clear majorities in some states, but that larger states like New York would be more difficult to convince.

  • Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, and Conneticut quickly ratified the Constitution.


The Debate in Massachussetts

  • Opponents of the Constitution held a clear majority at first (including John Hancock and Samuel Adams- both had signed Dec. of Ind.)

  • Sam Adams said constitution must never infringe on liberty of press, right to own arms, support search and seizure without a warrant

    • As a result federalists agreed to attach a bill of rights to the Constitution once it was ratified

    • Agreed to add amendment that would support state rights

      • This persuaded Adams to support the Constitution

      • Hancock and supporters joined in because they said they would nominate him for president

  • Final vote – 187 for and 168 against


The Debate in Virginia

  • By the end of June 1788 Maryland, South Carolina and New Hampshire had ratified the Constitution.

  • Federalists had reached the nine states needed to ratify the constitution.

    • New York and Virginia had not yet ratified

      • Without the support of these two states many felt the Constitution would fail.

      • George Mason and Patrick Henry argued strongly against ratification

      • George Washington and James Madison presented the arguments for ratification to Virginia – the Governor agreed

      • Virginia did narrowly supported the New Constitution


New York Votes to Ratify

  • 2/3 of the elected legislature were Anti-Federalists, including governor Clinton

  • Federalist led by Hamilton and John Jay tried to assure others that the Constitution would not infringe on state rights

  • Hamilton explained it had been specifically designed to limit tyranny.

  • Federalists managed to delay the vote until New Hampshire and Virginia ratified the Constitution and the new federal gov. was now in effect

    • City of New York warned state government that it would secede from NY and join the United States independently if Constitution was not ratified


NY Votes to Ratify Cont…

  • Some states did not initially ratify the Constitution

  • We will discuss the reasons during class.


First Presidential Election

  • George Washington was elected unopposed

    • Swilling the voters?

  • Federalist candidates for VP

    • John Adams, former Minister to Great Britain from Massachusetts

    • John Jay, U.S. Secretary of Foreign Affairs from New York

    • John Rutledge, former Governor of South Carolina

    • John Hancock, Governor of Massachusetts

    • Samuel Hutington, Governor of Connecticut

    • Benjamin Lincoln, former U.S. Secretary of War from Massachusetts


Washington’s Cabinet

  • As the first president of the United States, George Washington established the precedent of appointing a cabinet.

  • Neither required by law nor the Constitution, the cabinet consisted of political advisors to the president.

  • Washington wisely selected

    • John Adams (VP)

    • Thomas Jefferson (Sec. of State)

    • Hamilson (Sec. of Treasury)

    • Edmund Randolph

      (Attorney General)

  • Successive presidents have continued the tradition of selecting a cabinet, though scholars debate its usefulness.


What cabinet position is missing?


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