Organization of the CNS I. Phrenology. Review of the Nervous System. MAJOR FUNCTION: COMMUNICATION. Neuronal Morphology. The Neuronal Synapse. Glia – the Particular Role of Astrocytes. Astrocyte. Astrocytes Help Form the Blood Brain Barrier.
Review of the
The Neuronal Synapse
Glia – the Particular Role of Astrocytes
Schwann cells surrounding a (myelinated) axon:
Planes of Section:
7 Major Divisions of the CNS
-use of cranial nerves in place of spinal nerves.
b. Transmission of information between brain and SC.
-Works closely in concert with pons (derived from same embryonic brain division).
- from sc 1° sensory cortex
- from 1° motor cortex sc.
A. Relay Nuclei have distinct roles, transmitting info from particular subcortical inputs to a specific portion of the cerebral cortex.
-nearby premotor areas
-prefrontal asociation cortex
- important for reasoning and emotional control.
-Superior parietal lobule
-spatial perception, self-image
-Inferior parietal lobule
-integrating sensory information for speech and perception
-inferior temporal gyrus – perception of visual forms and colours.
- works with nearby occipital.
-temporal pole + medial temporal areas – mediate emotions along with nearby frontal cortical areas.
Dural sinuses are major venous areas carrying blood away from the brain.
i. Paleocortex – sense of smell, emotions (olf bulb).
ii. Archicortex – memories (hipp, 3 layers)
C. Brodmann’s Areas – Thickness of each of the 6 layers varies between these areas, which are also distinct functionally.
Areas that subserve sensation have a thick layer IV (thalamic n. project here)
1° motor areas have a thick layer V.