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MATERI IX. KEWIRAUSAHAAN. PRODUKSI & OPERASIONAL. 5 ISSUES That arise when trying to produce a product or service. Capacity (How much can I produce?) Scheduling (How am I going to do it?) Inventory (How much the efficient inventory is there?) Standards

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MATERI IX

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Materi ix

MATERI IX

KEWIRAUSAHAAN

PRODUKSI

&

OPERASIONAL


5 issues that arise when trying to produce a product or service

5 ISSUESThat arise when trying to produce a product or service

Capacity

(How much can I produce?)

Scheduling

(How am I going to do it?)

Inventory

(How much the efficient inventory is there?)

Standards

(Efficient production and quality output?)

Control

(Is the production process working?)


The six m s of capacity

The Six M’s of Capacity

1.Methods

- Have you chosen the best method of accomplishing the operational

task?

- Are the machines placed in the most efficient factory floor

configuration?

2. Materials

- Are the materials you need available and of good quality?

- Do you have capability to purchase efficiently, store, and distribute

the material when needed by the production process?

3. Manpower

- Do you have well-trained and productive workers and managers to

accomplish your productions goals?

- Are your worker sufficiently trained to operate any new technology

that you may acquire?


The six m s of capacity continued

The Six M’s of Capacity (continued)

4. Machinery

- Do you have the right tool for the job?

- Do your machines meet your need; capability, speed, reliability,

technology?

5. Money

- Is the cash to fund production available as needed?

- Is the investment in factories, equipment and inventories justified

in light of the entire organization’s opportunities?

- Does the project cash flow justify the investment? (a finance

question)

6. Messages

- Do you have a system for sharing accurate and timely information

among all members of the production team – people and

machine?

- A machine needs to electronically share information about output

and quality on assembly line with its operator, as well as with

other machines.


3 types of production methods

3 Types ofProduction Methods

  • Continuous Process

  • Assembly Line

  • Job Shop


Scheduling

scheduling

  • Critical Path Method (CPM)


Materi ix

CPM

Arrange each task or activity in sequential order and estimate the time needed to complete each one.

Each time a task begins or is completed it is called an event.

2

A = 2 wks

C = 3 wks

1

3

4

5

B = 4 wks

1 wk

Slack time

D = 1 wk

E = 1 wk


Inventory

Inventory

The Balancing Act. The optimal inventory level is a delicate balancing act.

Inventory decisions are tough because different departments of the same company have different goals.

InventoryVocabulary

  • Raw Materials(flour, sugar, egg, etc)

  • Work in Process(pastry in the oven, pastry on cooling trays, etc)

  • Finished Goods(cakes, cookies, and donuts ready for sale)

Value added by labor & overhead while in progress

Finished

goods, labor

& overhead

Raw

Materials

Work in

progress

materials

Finished

goods

materials


Five major reasons for holding inventory

Five Major Reasons for Holding Inventory

  • Pipeline

    (inventory on hand to minimize production delay and maximize efficiency)

  • Cycle

    (suppliers have minimum order that are greater than immediate need)

  • Safety

    (stocks held to avoid shortage because of uncertain production demands. Stockout cost money when production is halted)

  • Anticipatory

    (Inventory held in anticipation of known demand)

  • Speculative

    (items purchased to beat supplier price increases)


Economic order quantity eoq

Economic Order Quantity (EOQ)

2 costs associated with inventory

  • Carrying Costs

    (The costs associated with storage, insurance, and financing of inventory)

  • Ordering Costs

    (the cost of ordering that include all accounting and clerical labor and materials associated with placing and order)

Total Cost

(Item + Holding + Ordering

Holding Cost

Item Cost

Ordering Cost

EOQ


Economic order quantity eoq1

R = Annual unit requirements

O = Cost of placing and order

C = Cost of carrying a unit of inventory per

period

(2 x R x O)

EOQ =

C

Economic Order Quantity (EOQ)

The Formula

Sales history indicates that a level demand of 2,000 unit throughout the year. Each time order it cost $14 to process the order. A detail study of costs reveals that it cost $.50 to carry each unit in inventory for a year.

The formula calculates the most economic inventory order as 335 unit. Since the demand 2,000 unit, this means that there will be about 6 orders per year (2000/355).

2 x 2000 x $14

EOQ =

50

= 335 units


Penutup

PENUTUP

  • Produksi dan operasional merupakan kegiatan lainnya dalam suatu entiti bisnis.

  • Dalam memproduksi sesuatu, selain dari efektifitas dan efisiensi proses produksi, diperlukan pula manajemen persediaan (baik persediaan bahan baku, bahan dalam proses maupun persediaan barang jadi).


Materi ix1

MATERI IX

SEKIAN

  • Selain membaca buku, majalah, tabloit atau sumber referensi lainnya, dianjurakan untuk memperkaya referensi dengan mengunjungi situs-situs yang berhubungan, misalnya :

  • http://www.geocities.com/agus_lecturer/kompren/komprem_operasional.htm

  • http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9106305/production-management

  • Note : gunakan kata kunci “manajemen produksi”, “production management” atau yang lain untuk browse di search engine

PRODUKSI

&

OPERASIONAL


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