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Structured and Spontaneous Lyric Analysis: Facilitating Effectively While Managing “Clinical Realities ”. Kevin Hahn, MT-BC Supervising Rehabilitation Therapist Supervising Music Therapist Atascadero State Hospital. Session Intro. Welcome. Session Format.

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Structured and Spontaneous Lyric Analysis:Facilitating Effectively While Managing “Clinical Realities”

Kevin Hahn, MT-BC

Supervising Rehabilitation Therapist

Supervising Music Therapist

Atascadero State Hospital


Session intro
Session Intro

Welcome


Session format
Session Format

  • Experiential and didactic workshop to:

    • Identify, define, and consider applications of “structured” and “spontaneous” lyric analysis experiences

    • Provide tools to entry-level MTs to refine lyric analysis technique

    • Practice and discuss strategies for handling challenging moments that require MT to be spontaneous


Relation to scope of practice
Relation to Scope of Practice

  • CBMT Scope of Practice (2010)

    • II-A-1. Develop a therapeutic relationship

    • II-A-5-e. Employ active listening

    • II-A-5-g. Use creativity and flexibility in meeting client’s changing needs


Relation to scope of practice1
Relation to Scope of Practice

  • CBMT Scope of Practice (2010)

    • II-A-5-l. Mediate problems among clients within the session

    • II-A-5-s. Apply receptive methods

    • II-A-5-z. Empathize with client’s music experience


Relation to scope of practice2
Relation to Scope of Practice

  • CBMT Scope of Practice (2010)

    • II-A-5-aa. Observe client reactions

    • III-B-1. Identify information that is relevant to client’s treatment process


Relation to scope of practice3
Relation to Scope of Practice

  • CBMT Scope of Practice (2010)

    • III-B-2. Differentiate between empirical information and therapist’s interpretation

    • III-B-3. Acknowledge therapist’s bias and limitations in interpreting information


What brings you here
What Brings You Here?

  • I’d like to get to know you

    • Who are you?

    • What do you hope to gain from this group?

      • (I’ll answer, too) 


What brings me here
What Brings Me Here?

  • I am here as the result of my:

    • Clinical experience

      • Work with ‘difficult’ populations

      • Internship supervisor observations

    • Interest in quality of practice issues

      • Personal reflections on methodology

      • Desire to understand approaches and processes in lyric analysis


What brings me here1
What Brings Me Here?

  • I am here as the result of my:

    • Interests in research

    • Desire to connect with Western Region

      • Hi 


A disclaimer
A Disclaimer

  • This is not the outcome of a legacy of good scientific research

    • (As if lyric analysis isn’t hard enough to study already…)

  • This is however an attempt to “understand” from the viewpoint of a working clinician


A disclaimer continued
A Disclaimer (Continued)

  • These are essentially my opinions as supported by clinical evidence:

    • Observations of trends (practice-based evidence)

    • Critical thinking about music therapy practice


A disclaimer continued1
A Disclaimer (Continued)

  • My ideas are fallible:

    • Would love to design the research for you to test

    • But seriously:

      • Only way to achieving EBP in music therapy is throughcollaboration and communication


Contextualizing lyric analysis
Contextualizing Lyric Analysis

What’s the big picture?


Music therapy methods
Music Therapy Methods

  • Bruscia’s four methods

    • Improvisation

    • Re-creation

    • Composition (creation)

    • Receptive Experiences

Gardstrom, S. C., & Hiller, J. (2010). Song discussion as music psychotherapy. Music Therapy Perspectives, 28(2), 147-156.


Receptive methods
Receptive Methods

  • MT uses live or recorded music

  • Client listens and responds to music in some capacity

Gardstrom, S. C., & Hiller, J. (2010). Song discussion as music psychotherapy. Music Therapy Perspectives, 28(2), 147-156.


What s in a name
What’s in a Name?

  • Several intervention names

    • Lyric analysis

    • Song discussion*

    • Music communication

    • Unconscious song recall

    • Song Choice

Gardstrom, S. C., & Hiller, J. (2010). Song discussion as music psychotherapy. Music Therapy Perspectives, 28(2), 147-156.


What s in a name1
What’s in a Name?

  • Several intervention names

    • Song lyric discussion*

    • Song sharing

    • Music discussion

    • Song analysis

    • Song reminiscence

Grocke, D., & Wigram, T. (2007). Receptive methods in music therapy. Philadelphia, PA: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.


Lyric analysis and song discussion are the most commonly used names in current mt literature
“Lyric Analysis” and “Song Discussion” are the most commonly used names in current MT literature


Hierarchy of receptive exp
Hierarchy of Receptive Exp.

(Example Interventions)

Adapted from:

Gardstrom, S. C., & Hiller, J. (2010). Song discussion as music psychotherapy. Music Therapy Perspectives, 28(2), 147-156.


But huh
But… Huh?

(Example of Types of Lyric Analysis Interventions)


Although we have several intervention names that fall under lyric analysis, their differences may seem relatively subtle


Now even more complicated
Now Even More Complicated

Clients reflecting on past experiences to some degree

(Can clients analyzefree of external influences?)

Both based on “here and now”

Client picks music to express something


Only one common thread
(Only?) One Common Thread

  • Three stages of the process:

    • Music is chosen

    • Music is heard or performed

    • Music is discussed

Grocke, D., & Wigram, T. (2007). Receptive methods in music therapy. Philadelphia, PA: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.


Rather than investigate these subtle differences, what if we considered how we approach the lyric analysis experience?


Main differences in approach
Main Differences in considered Approach

Structured

Spontaneous

  • Pre-planned approach

  • Example indicators:

    • Prepared questions or prompts

    • Therapist selecting music

    • Client selecting music before session

    • More time to prepare supplementary materials

  • Responsive approach

  • Example indicators:

    • Questions prepared on spot

    • Therapist responds to ‘live’ choices by clients

    • Less time (or none) to prepare supplementary materials

    • Possibly less formal structure


Defining lyric analysis
Defining considered Lyric Analysis

(Can we?)


An attempt to understand
An Attempt to Understand considered

  • How can music therapists facilitate lyric analysis (LA) both effectively and ethically?

  • What are the components and mechanisms involved in LA?


Steps toward defining la
Steps Toward Defining LA considered

  • Understanding ethical boundaries and considerations

  • Using the “Five W’s” to formulate as inclusive a definitionas possible


Integrity and fidelity
Integrity and Fidelity considered

  • How music therapists strive to facilitate as ethically as possible:

    • AMTA Code of Ethics

    • HIPAA

    • Group agreements as safeguard

    • Professional boundaries and supervision


Group agreements ideas
Group Agreements (ideas) considered

  • Confidentiality

    • How will it be implemented?

    • When will it not? How/why?

  • Respect and individual needs

    • How to handle various preferences?

    • Encourage clients to participate?


Where do we facilitate la
Where considered do we facilitate LA?

  • Context affects preparation

    • Group therapy

      • Closed groups

      • Open groups

    • Individual therapy


Who facilitates la
Who considered facilitates LA?

  • Music therapists

    • Board-certified, licensed, etc.

    • Supervised students

  • Who else can facilitate LA?

  • Thoughts and concerns about other professionals and individuals facilitating LA?


What positive outcomes could occur through la
What considered positive outcomes could occur through LA?

  • Improved self-awareness

  • Emotional release and growth

  • Positive peer relationships

  • Personal insight and fulfillment

Gardstrom, S. C., & Hiller, J. (2010). Song discussion as music psychotherapy. Music Therapy Perspectives, 28(2), 147-156.


Why does la work for clients
Why considered does LA work for clients?

  • Lyric analysis as a wheel

    • A vehicle that we help establish for our clients so they can make progress in treatment


Why does la work for clients1
Why considered does LA work for clients?

  • Theoretical framework of ‘ideals’

  • An effective LA experience…

    • Seeks or maintains safety

    • Inspires hope

    • Sets the stage for success or growth

  • …allowing the client to move forward in treatment


What affects la experiences
What considered affects LA experiences?

  • What external and internal variables could affect a client’s experience in lyric analysis?

    • Values? Hopes? Biases? Goals?

    • Experiences? Thoughts? Feelings?

    • Family? Vocation? Education?

    • Music Preference? Taste? Dislikes?


What affects la experiences1
What considered affects LA experiences?

  • “Psychological Processes”

    • Identification

    • Empathy

    • Projection

Gardstrom, S. C., & Hiller, J. (2010). Song discussion as music psychotherapy. Music Therapy Perspectives, 28(2), 147-156.


What affects la experiences2
What considered affects LA experiences?

  • Intentionally selected components of our intervention:

    • Music components

    • Therapy components

    • Music therapy components


What affects la experiences3
What considered affects LA experiences?

  • Intentionally selected components of our intervention:

    • Music components include…

      • Rhythm and meter

      • Melody and harmony

      • Timbre and quality

      • Genre and form


What affects la experiences4
What considered affects LA experiences?

  • Intentionally selected components of our intervention:

    • Therapy components include…

      • Active listening and counseling skills

      • Critical thinking and responding

      • Awareness of therapist biases, limitations, transference issues, etc.


What affects la experiences5
What considered affects LA experiences?

  • Intentionally selected components of our intervention:

    • Music therapy components include…

      • Design of LA experience / session plan

      • Blend of music/lyrics to elicit specific intended outcomes

      • Presence and presentation of materials

      • Professional boundaries


Although we may considered intentionally plan individual components of LA, in the MT experiencethese components appear to work in conjunction


Components of a la experience
Components of a LA Experience considered

If only it were so easy…


Components of a la experience1
Components of a LA Experience considered

We may set up the individual components…

But when the session starts, these work in conjunction with one another…


How can we guide clients in la
How considered can we guide clients in LA?

  • Common themes in how we can help move clients forward

  • “Tools” for lyric analysis

    • “Rock the High Cs!” theme

      • Seven “Considerations”

      • Acknowledgement


Tools for staying on task in la
Tools for Staying On-Task in LA considered

  • “Seven Cs and an A”

    • Context

    • Congruence

    • Contrast

    • Conversation

    • Censorship

    • Confrontation

    • Closure

    • Acknowledgement


How we use our “tools” for LA will depend on which considered component of the session we are tweaking as well as the LA approach being utilized in the moment


Definitions and examples
Definitions and Examples considered

  • Context: Awareness of variables related to current situation

    • Music: History of song

    • Therapy: Client’s background, life experiences, progress in therapy

    • Music Therapy: Selecting intervention to match group needs

      • Helpful websites:


Websites for researching songs: considered www.songfacts.comwww.songmeanings.netwww.snopes.comwww.wikipedia.org


Definitions and examples1
Definitions and Examples considered

  • Congruence: Alignment (or nonalignment) of various parts of a greater whole

    • Music: Sound differs from title or words

    • Therapy: Client behavior does not match affect; affect does not reflect thoughts

    • Music Therapy: Music selection does not match what client states

      • Audio Example:


Wonderful everclear

(Na considered nananananana)Please don't tell me everything is wonderful nowI go to school and I run and playI tell the kids that it's all okayI like to laugh so my friends won't knowWhen the bell rings I just don't wanna go homeGo to my room and I close my eyesI make believe that I have a new lifeI don't believe you when you sayEverything will be wonderful someday

“Wonderful” - Everclear

YouTube Link


Wonderful everclear1

Promises mean everything when you're little considered And the world is so bigI just don't understand howYou can smile with all those tears in your eyesWhen you tell me everything is wonderful now

(Na nananananana)

I don't wanna hear you tell me everything is wonderful now

“Wonderful” - Everclear


Definitions and examples2
Definitions and Examples considered

  • Contrast: Differentiation between two or more entities

    • Music: Different sections of songs

    • Therapy: Emotions associated with different behaviors

    • Music Therapy: Feeling/descriptive words to identify differences in songs

      • Audio examples:


Landslide two ways

(Instrumental Solo) considered Well, I've been afraid of changin'Cause I've built my life around youBut time makes bolderChildren get olderAnd I'm getting older tooWell, I'm getting older tooSo take this love and take it downYeah, and if you climb a mountain and you turn aroundAnd if you see my reflection in the snow-covered hillsWell, the landslide brought it downAnd if you see my reflection in the snow-covered hillsWell maybe...

“Landslide” Two Ways

YouTube Link - Stevie Nicks

YouTube Link - Dixie Chicks


Definitions and examples3
Definitions and Examples considered

  • Conversation: Flow of therapy experience that is comfortable and inclusive of client input

    • Presence and openness to experience

    • Connecting client comments

    • Setting the stage for clients to take the lead in their treatment


Definitions and examples4
Definitions and Examples considered

  • Censorship: Intentional suppression of ‘undesirable’ or ‘objectionable’ content

    • Know your facility/business policies

    • Know personal limits/boundaries

    • Your clients know the real words 

    • ‘Radio edits’ are not always enough

      • Audio Example:


Rihanna s and m
Rihanna considered – “S and M”

Feels so good being bad

There’s no way I’m turning back

Now the pain is my pleasure cause nothing could measure

Love is great, love is fine

Outta box, outta line

The affliction of the feeling leaves me wanting more

Chorus

Cause I may be bad, but I’m perfectly good at it

Sex in the air, I don’t care, I love the smell of it

Sticks and stones may break my bones

But chains and whips excite me (x2)

YouTube Link


Definitions and examples5
Definitions and Examples considered

  • Confrontation: Clashing of ideals; “to face in challenge”

    • Could be censorship in experience

    • Raising awareness of incongruence

    • Occurs in further stage of treatment

    • How well do you know this client?


Definitions and examples6
Definitions and Examples considered

  • Closure: Sense of finality when terminating session or experience

    • Summarize what happened

    • Tie ‘themes’ together across clients

    • Don’t leave your clients “hanging”


Definitions and examples7
Definitions and Examples considered

  • Acknowledgement: Therapeutic reinforcement of positive gains in treatment

    • Validates client experience

    • Could be represented with music

    • What are you acknowledging?

    • Specificity and recency are key


Tools for staying on task in la1
Tools for Staying On-Task in LA considered

  • “Seven Cs and an A”

    • Context

    • Congruence

    • Contrast

    • Conversation

    • Censorship

    • Confrontation

    • Closure

    • Acknowledgement


Congruence considered

Context


Structured lyric analysis
Structured Lyric Analysis considered

Preparation and Practice


Recommended Readings for structuring LA experiences: considered Gardstrom and Hiller (2010) MTPGrocke and Wigram (2007)


Group role play
Group Role Play considered

  • Song will be presented

  • Group will discuss elements of the song as well as possible questions they could prepare for a structured lyric analysis


Additional group processing
Additional Group Processing considered

  • What are the salient music elements?

  • What are the salient text features?

  • What goals or outcomes could be measured using this song?

  • What themes are present in the song?

  • What populations are indicated or contraindicated?


Spontaneous lyric analysis
Spontaneous considered Lyric Analysis

Preparation and Practice


A few caveats
A Few Caveats considered

  • (Especially for students, but good reminders for ourselves as well)

    • Unstructured LA ≠ unplanned LA

      • Based on your facility/group structure; therapist still selects guiding themes, etc.

        “Primum non nocere.”

      • Music therapists should “do no harm.”


A guiding principle for facilitating spontaneous la experiences think critically act clinically
A guiding principle for facilitating Spontaneous LA experiences:“Think critically,Act clinically.”


Practicing spontaneous la
Practicing Spontaneous LA experiences:

  • Exposure to many types of music and the normative culture

    • Example: Hip-hop culture and musical “references”

  • (Continue to) educate yourself about context of selected songs


Group role play1
Group Role Play experiences:

  • Group will listen to song and discuss possible questions and responses

  • Facilitator will give feedback and provide possible client responses


Smiling faces sometimes undisputed truth
“Smiling Faces Sometimes” experiences: Undisputed Truth

YouTube Link


Small group role play
Small Group Role Play experiences:

  • Split into small groups

  • One person will be the therapist

  • One person will be the main client

  • Others will be observers

  • Listen to and discuss song as it relates to theme of “life changes”


Thank u alanis morissette
“Thank U” – Alanis experiences:Morissette

YouTube Link


Let the rain sara bareilles

YouTube Link experiences:

“Let the Rain” – Sara Bareilles


Even during experiences:structured LA experiences, we may encounter times that require us to be spontaneous and flexible


Some what if moments
Some “What if…?” Moments experiences:

  • Song is only loosely tied to song title

  • Title is only part that reflects theme

  • Person is hogging the conversation

  • Off-task behaviors

  • Uncomfortable response to music

  • Strong religious associations/group with differing religious affiliations


Some what if moments1
Some “What if…?” Moments experiences:

  • Song is perceived to enable behavior

  • Content is more offensive than you originally expected

  • Substance abuse theme

  • You don’t know what to say or do


Handling what if times
Handling “What if…?” Times experiences:

  • Remember to be ethical (“Think critically, act clinically”)

  • Know your boundaries

  • Seek supervision

  • Be genuine


Also don t forget your la tools
Also- Don’t Forget Your LA Tools! experiences:

  • “Seven Cs and an A”

    • Context

    • Congruence

    • Contrast

    • Conversation

    • Censorship

    • Confrontation

    • Closure

    • Acknowledgement


Role play saying no
Role Play: Saying No experiences:

  • Setting boundaries with a client can be difficult or uncomfortable

  • “Client” will ask therapist to play an ‘inappropriate’ song

  • “Therapist” will respond by respectfully declining to do so


Unexpected observations
“Unexpected” Observations experiences:

  • “Music video as literal meaning” phenomenon

  • In your own experience facilitating spontaneous lyric analysis, what are other issues or “unexpected” observations you have encountered?


Congruence experiences:

Context


Questions
Questions? experiences:


Thank you
Thank You experiences:

-Kevin Hahn


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