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Reconstruction PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Reconstruction. Lincoln’s Assassination. John Wilkes Booth “Sic semper tyrannis” (“thus be it ever to tyrants”) “Avenged” South. Lincoln’s Assassination. 1 st Time US Pres. assassinated 1/3 of nation publically mourned. Civil War Over. How to restore S. States?

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Lincoln s assassination

Lincoln’s Assassination

  • John Wilkes Booth

    • “Sic semper tyrannis” (“thus be it ever to tyrants”)

    • “Avenged” South

Lincoln s assassination1

Lincoln’s Assassination

  • 1st Time US Pres. assassinated

    • 1/3 of nation publically mourned

Civil war over

Civil War Over

  • How to restore S. States?

  • How to integrate 4 mil. newly freed African Americans into national life?

Politics of reconstruction

Politics of Reconstruction

Andrew johnson

Andrew Johnson

  • Lincoln’s VP [TN]

    • Disliked: Wealthy S. Planters

    • Former slave-owner

    • Favored: Harsh punishments for CSA leaders

Andrew johnson1

Andrew Johnson

  • Political Problems: Mistrust

    • Republicans b/c he was a Democrat

    • Democrats b/c he ran w/ Republican

    • Southerners b/c he was w/ Union

    • Northerners b/c they feared sympathy for S.

Lincoln s plan

Lincoln’s Plan

  • Lincoln’s Plan

    • S. never left Union (individuals rebelled)

    • 1863: Proclamation of Amnesty & Reconstruction

      • 10% Plan

    • ALL Confeds. Pardoned who swore Allegiance to U.

      • Ex. War Criminals, High-Ranking Officials

    • If 10% swore, C. state = NEW state gov’t, reps.

    • AR, LA, TN, VA

    • Vetoed Wade-Davis Bill (1864) (Congress. Ctl.)

Freedmen s bureau

Freedmen’s Bureau

  • March 1865

  • Outlawed race-based discrimination in:

    • Carrying U.S. Mail

    • Riding public street cars (D.C.)

    • Soldier’s pay

13 th amendment

13th Amendment

  • 1865

  • "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.”

Radical republicans

Radical Republicans

  • Opposed Lincoln’s plan (majority)

  • Led: Thaddeus Stevens, Charles Sumner

  • Wanted:

    • Destroy S. Political Power!

    • Full Citizenship & Voting for African Americans

Johnson s plan

Johnson’s Plan

  • AL, FL, GA, MS, NC, SC, TX admitted

    • Withdraw secession, swear allegiance

    • Annul C. war debts

    • Ratify 13th Amend.

  • Ignored: former slaves (land, voting, protection)

  • Rad. Reps. angry, S. pleased

  • “White men alone must manage the South”



  • J’s Plan OK

  • New Const. (expt. TX)

  • J pardons all

    • New Reps.

      • 58 in Confed. Congress

      • 6 in C. Cabinet

      • 4 Generals

  • Rad. Reps. mad

  • African Americans Betrayed

Freedman s bureau expanded

Freedman’s Bureau Expanded

  • Former slaves & poor whites – clothing & food

  • 40 Hospitals

  • 4,000 schools

  • 61 industrial institutes

  • 74 teacher-training centers

Civil rights act 1866

Civil Rights Act 1866

  • Provided citizenship for African Americans

  • FORBADE discriminatory laws

    • Black Codes (MS, SC had 1st)

      • Restored slavery’s restrictions

Black codes

Black Codes

  • Some common elements of Black Codes were:

    • Race was defined by blood; the presence of any amount of black blood made one black.

    • Employment was required of all freedmen; violators faced vagrancy charges.

    • Freedmen could not assemble without the presence of a white person.

    • Freedmen were assumed to be agricultural workers and their duties and hours were tightly regulated.

    • Freedmen were not to be taught to read or write.

    • Public facilities were segregated.

    • Violators of these laws were subject to being whipped or branded.

Black codes1

Black Codes

  • Some Black Codes in Louisiana:

    • Any negro found drunk, within the said parish shall pay a fine of five dollars, or in default thereof work five days on the public road, or suffer corporeal punishment as hereinafter provided.

    • No negro who is not in the military service shall be allowed to carry fire-arms, or any kind of weapons, within the parish, without the special written permission of his employers, approved and indorsed by the nearest and most convenient chief of patrol.

    • No negro shall be permitted to preach, exhort, or otherwise declaim to congregations of colored people, without a special permission in writing from the president of the police jury.

    • Every negro is required to be in the regular service of some white person, or former owner, who shall be held responsible for the conduct of said negro. But said employer or former owner may permit said negro to hire his own time by special permission in writing, which permission shall not extend over seven days at any one time.

    • No negro shall be permitted to rent or keep a house within said parish. Any negro violating this provision shall be immediately ejected and compelled to find an employer; and any person who shall rent, or give the use of any house to any negro, in violation of this section, shall pay a fine of five dollars for each offence.

The union as it was

“The Union As It Was”



  • Johnson vetoes Freedman’s Bureau Act, Civil Rights Act

  • POTUS vs. Congress (Mod. & Rad. Reps.)

Moderates radicals

Moderates & Radicals

  • 1866 – override veto (many Reps. in Congress)

    • 1st major legis. overridden

  • 14th Amendment

    • All persons born/naturalized in the US (inc. former slaves) are citizens w/ equal protection of the law

    • J. urged S. states not to ratify

Reconstruction act 1867

Reconstruction Act 1867

  • Only TN recog. (had ratified 14th)

  • 5 mil. Districts

  • Voters (inc. A-A men)

    • Const. Conventions

  • Re-Entry Terms:

    • A-A men vote

    • Ratify 14th

  • Johnson vetoed

  • Congress overrode

Johnson impeached

Johnson Impeached

  • Radicals: Not carrying out (const.) obligation to enforce Reconstruction Act

  • Impeachment trial:

    • 35 to 19 (1 short of 2/3 maj.)

    • Acquitted

Election of 1868

Election of 1868

  • Horatio Seymour (D.) vs. Ulysses S. Grant (R.)

    • 500,000 S. African Americans voted

The 15 th amendment

The 15th Amendment

  • Universal suffrage for all men (can’t deny based on race or color or previous status [slave])

  • Affected N. (many barred suffrage)

  • Ratified 1870

  • Some S. gov’ts refused to enforce

    • Violence

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