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Topics. Multi-FPGA systems. Issues. Types of multi-FPGA systems. Multi-FPGA networks. Multi-FPGA partitioning. Types of systems. Can build a specialized multi-FPGA system. Wired for one purpose. Can build reusable multi-FPGA system. Emulators, other debugging systems. Networks. Ad hoc.

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Topics

Topics

  • Multi-FPGA systems.


Issues

Issues

  • Types of multi-FPGA systems.

  • Multi-FPGA networks.

  • Multi-FPGA partitioning.


Types of systems

Types of systems

  • Can build a specialized multi-FPGA system.

    • Wired for one purpose.

  • Can build reusable multi-FPGA system.

    • Emulators, other debugging systems.


Networks

Networks

  • Ad hoc.

    • Best suited for specialized systems.

  • Crossbar.

    • Fully connected.

  • Specialized crossbars.

  • Multi-stage.

    • Not often used in multi-FPGA systems.


Crossbar

Crossbar

  • Fully connected:

w

x

y

z

a

b

c

d


Properties of crossbar

Properties of crossbar

  • Fully connected:

    • Single source/destination.

    • Multi-point.

  • n2 area.


Clos network

Clos network

  • System of crossbars that has less than n2 area.

  • Fully connected for single-destination connections.

    • Not fully connected for multiple destinations.


Clos network organization

Clos network organization


Net size distribution

Net size distribution

  • Most nets are small, making Clos network feasible for logic:

# nets

# pins

1

2

3


Partial crossbar

Partial crossbar

  • Takes advantage of FPGA reprogrammability.

  • Several small crossbars.

    • If your crossbar doesn’t have room for the connection, reprogram to use another crossbar on another pin.


Trees and fat trees

Trees and fat trees

  • Trees allow communication between leaves.

  • Fat trees provide more bandwidth near root.

…


Multi chip partitioning

Multi-chip partitioning

  • Somewhat similar to partitioning for LE placement.

  • Differences:

    • k-way partitioning;

    • pins are a major cost;

    • must handle large problems.


K way partitioning

K-way partitioning

  • Direct:

    • Divide into k sets.

  • Iterative:

    • Extract one set, then another, etc.


Clustering based partitioning

Clustering-based partitioning

  • Grow a cluster to form a partition.

    • Start with a seed for the cluster.

    • Choose new nodes to add to the cluster.

  • Next move depends on the quality of the previous moves.


Fiduccia mattheyses partitioning

Fiduccia-Mattheyses partitioning

  • Can deal with variable-sized blocks.

  • Related to Kernighan-Lin partitioning.

    • Uses a new data structure to determine the best cell to move.

  • Uses an improved algorithm for updating cell gains after a move.

    • Total gain recomputation can be performed by a set of constant time gain increments/decrements.


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