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SOLUTIONS PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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SOLUTIONS. A homogeneous mixture in which the components are uniformly intermingled. Terms. Solvent – The substance present in the largest amount in a solution. The substance that does the dissolving. Solute – The other substance or substances in a solution.

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SOLUTIONS

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Solutions

SOLUTIONS

A homogeneous mixture in which the components are uniformly intermingled


Terms

Terms

Solvent –

The substance present in the largest amount in a solution.

The substance that does the dissolving.

Solute –

The other substance or substances in a solution.

The substance that is dissolved.


Molarity

MOLARITY

  • Molarity-the number of moles of solute per liters of solution

  • M = molarity = moles of solute

    liter of solution


Solutions

  • Calculate the molarity of a solution prepared by dissolving 11.5 g of NaOH in enough water to make a 1.50 L solution.


Solutions

  • Calculate the molarity of a solution prepared by dissolving 1.56 g of HCl into enough water to make 26.8 ml of solution.


Solutions

  • Calculate the number of grams of sodium phosphate required to make 150. ml of a 2.5M solution.


Solutions

  • How many liters of solution are needed to dissolve 5.0 g of hydrochloric acid to make a 3.0 M hydrochloric acid solution?


Electrolytes

ELECTROLYTES

  • Substances that break up in water to produce ions.

  • These ions can conduct electric current

  • Examples: Acids, Bases and Salts (ionic compounds)


Solubility

SOLUBILITY

  • “Like dissolves Like”

    • Polar molecules dissolve polar molecules

    • Nonpolar molecules dissolve nonpolar molecules


Solubility rules

SOLUBILITY RULES

  • All common salts of Group I elements and ammonium are soluble

  • All common acetates and nitrates are soluble

  • All binary compounds of Group 7 with metals are soluble except those of silver, mercury I and lead

  • All sulfates are soluble except those of barium, strontium, calcium, silver, mercury I and lead

  • Except for those in Rule 1, carbonates, hydroxides, oxides, sulfides and phosphates are insoluble


Terms1

Terms

  • Saturated

    • When a solution contains the maximum amount of solute

  • Unsaturated

    • When a solvent can dissolve more solute

  • Supersaturated

    • When the solution contains more solute than a saturated solution will hold at that temperature

  • Concentrated

    • When a relatively large amount of solute is dissolved

  • Dilute

    • When a relatively small amount of solute is dissolved


Factors affecting the rate of dissolution

Factors Affecting the Rate of Dissolution

  • Surface Area

  • Stirring

  • Temperature


Temperature vs solubility

Temperature vs Solubility


Dilutions

DILUTIONS

  • M1 x V1 = M2 x V2

  • What volume of 16 M sulfuric acid must be used to prepare 1.5 L of a 0.10 M H2SO4

  • What volume of 12 M HCl must be used to prepare 0.75 L of a 0.25 M HCl?


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