# SOLUTIONS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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SOLUTIONS. A homogeneous mixture in which the components are uniformly intermingled. Terms. Solvent – The substance present in the largest amount in a solution. The substance that does the dissolving. Solute – The other substance or substances in a solution.

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SOLUTIONS

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## SOLUTIONS

A homogeneous mixture in which the components are uniformly intermingled

### Terms

Solvent –

The substance present in the largest amount in a solution.

The substance that does the dissolving.

Solute –

The other substance or substances in a solution.

The substance that is dissolved.

### MOLARITY

• Molarity-the number of moles of solute per liters of solution

• M = molarity = moles of solute

liter of solution

• Calculate the molarity of a solution prepared by dissolving 11.5 g of NaOH in enough water to make a 1.50 L solution.

• Calculate the molarity of a solution prepared by dissolving 1.56 g of HCl into enough water to make 26.8 ml of solution.

• Calculate the number of grams of sodium phosphate required to make 150. ml of a 2.5M solution.

• How many liters of solution are needed to dissolve 5.0 g of hydrochloric acid to make a 3.0 M hydrochloric acid solution?

### ELECTROLYTES

• Substances that break up in water to produce ions.

• These ions can conduct electric current

• Examples: Acids, Bases and Salts (ionic compounds)

### SOLUBILITY

• “Like dissolves Like”

• Polar molecules dissolve polar molecules

• Nonpolar molecules dissolve nonpolar molecules

### SOLUBILITY RULES

• All common salts of Group I elements and ammonium are soluble

• All common acetates and nitrates are soluble

• All binary compounds of Group 7 with metals are soluble except those of silver, mercury I and lead

• All sulfates are soluble except those of barium, strontium, calcium, silver, mercury I and lead

• Except for those in Rule 1, carbonates, hydroxides, oxides, sulfides and phosphates are insoluble

### Terms

• Saturated

• When a solution contains the maximum amount of solute

• Unsaturated

• When a solvent can dissolve more solute

• Supersaturated

• When the solution contains more solute than a saturated solution will hold at that temperature

• Concentrated

• When a relatively large amount of solute is dissolved

• Dilute

• When a relatively small amount of solute is dissolved

• Surface Area

• Stirring

• Temperature

### DILUTIONS

• M1 x V1 = M2 x V2

• What volume of 16 M sulfuric acid must be used to prepare 1.5 L of a 0.10 M H2SO4

• What volume of 12 M HCl must be used to prepare 0.75 L of a 0.25 M HCl?