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Latin Grammar. Perfect Participles Deponent (Grammar for 3B, p. 158) (Perfect Deponent Participles) (Deponent Perfect Participles). What is a participle?. A participle is an adjective made from a verb. English can make two sorts of participles from most verbs .

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latin grammar

Latin Grammar

Perfect Participles Deponent

(Grammar for 3B, p. 158)

(Perfect Deponent Participles)

(Deponent Perfect Participles)

what is a participle
What is a participle?
  • A participle is an adjective made from a verb.
  • English can make two sorts of participles from most verbs.
    • From the English verb breakwe get the participles breaking and broken.

The broken window.

My breaking heart.

latin particples
Latin Particples
  • Latin verbs have several participles.
  • We’re about to meet our first:

the perfect deponent participle.

latin participles
Latin Participles
  • If you remove the sum from the last principal part of a deponent verb, the result is a deponent perfect participle.

minor, minārī, minātus sum  minātus, -a, -um

ingredior, ingredī, ingressussum  ingressus, -a, -um

  • These words are adjectives and they decline just like multus, -a, -um.
latin participles1
Latin Participles
  • How do we translate these perfect deponent participles?

having Xed

mīnātus, -a, -um = having threatened

ingressus, -a, -um = having entered

These are perfect participles. In Latin, that means that their actions have to be perfect, that is, complete before the time of a clause’s main verb.

a note on a latin obsession
A Note on a Latin Obsession
  • Latin is obsessed with distinguishing between actions that are complete (perfect) or incomplete with respect to the present moment or with respect to other verbs.
  • English does not share this obsession.
perfect deponent participles
Perfect Deponent Participles

Marcus, in aedīsingressus, fīliumcastigāuit.

Marcus, having entered into the house, castigated his son.

We use the having Xedtranslation to make it clear that the action of the participle in Latin is PERFECT, that is, COMPLETE, with respect to the main verb castigāuit.

perfect deponent participles1
Perfect Deponent Participles

Marcus, in aedīsingressus, fīliumcastigāuit.

However, the following translation is also a good English translation.

Marcus, entering into the house, castigated his son.

For the time being, I prefer you to translate these participles as having Xed.

a side note
A Side-Note
  • By the way, this Latin obsession with whether actions are complete (perfect) or incomplete explains why the perfect of deponent verbs uses the present tense of sum.

ingressus sum

  • The action of ingressusmust be complete (perfect) with respect to the conjugated verb sum. So that means that it must be a perfect action.
perfect deponent participles2
Perfect Deponent Participles

Iulia, fīliumcōnspicāta, in aedīsingressa est.

Julia, having spotted her son, entered into the house.

(OR Julia, spotting her son, entered into the house.)

caution
Caution

ingressus sum ≠ingressus!

(I entered ≠having entered)

adipīscor, adipīscī, adeptus sum = get, gain, acquire

adeptīsumus≠adeptī!

(Wegot ≠having gotten)

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