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Creating and Consuming RESTful Web Services with WCF. Ron Jacobs Sr. Technical Evangelist Platform Evangelism Microsoft Corporation. Agenda. What is REST? Is REST SOA? Key REST principles Adventure Works REST API WCF Example Summary. 71 Slides 5 Demos I must be insane!. Resources.

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creating and consuming restful web services with wcf

Creating and Consuming RESTful Web Services with WCF

Ron Jacobs

Sr. Technical Evangelist

Platform Evangelism

Microsoft Corporation

agenda
Agenda
  • What is REST?
  • Is REST SOA?
  • Key REST principles
  • Adventure Works REST API WCF Example
  • Summary

71 Slides

5 Demos

I must be insane!

resources
Resources
  • Leonard Richardson
  • Sam Ruby
  • www.ronjacobs.com
    • Code
    • Slides
what is rest
“Representational state transfer (REST) is a style of software architecture for distributed hypermedia systems such as the World Wide Web.”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Representational_State_Transfer

What is rest?
what is rest1
What is REST?
  • Application state and functionality are resources
  • Every resource has a URI
  • All resources share a uniform interface

HTTP

is rest soa1
IS REST SOA?
  • REST is an architectural style that allows you to implement services with broad reach
  • SOA is about services
    • SOA is not about protocol, transport, format etc.

5 HTTP Messages

18,604 bytes

“You entered: 1”

key rest principles
“The promise is that if you adhere to REST principles while designing your application, you will end up with a system that exploits the Web’s architecture to your benefit.”

-Stefan Tilkov

http://www.infoq.com/articles/rest-introduction

Key rest principles
key rest principles1
Key REST Principles
  • Give every “thing” an ID
  • Link things together
  • Use standard methods
  • Resources with multiple representations
  • Communicate statelessly
give every thing an id
Give every “thing” an ID
  • Expose thing or collection things with a scheme that is ubiquitous
  • Embrace the URI
    • How to get it (http:// or net.tcp:// or net.msmq:// etc.)
    • Where to get it (example.com)
    • What to get (customer 1234)
give every thing an id1
Give every “thing” an ID

An API like this

Customer C = GetCustomer(1234);

Can be represented like this

http://example.com/customers/1234

link things together
Link Things Together
  • Hypermedia as the engine of application state
    • Just means that you should link things together
    • People or apps can transition state by following links
    • Links can be to the same app or to some other app
link things together1
Link Things Together

<CustomerData>

<Self>http://adventure-works.com/customer/1</Self>

<CompanyName>A Bike Store</CompanyName>

<CustomerID>1</CustomerID>

<EmailAddress>[email protected]</EmailAddress>

<FirstName>Orlando</FirstName>

<LastName>Gee</LastName>

<Orders>http://adventure-works.com/customer/1/orders</Orders>

<RowID>3f5ae95e-b87d-4aed-95b4-c3797afcb74f</RowID>

</CustomerData>

http://search.live.com/results.aspx?q=Ron+Jacobs&first=11...

use standard methods
Use Standard Methods

public class Resource

{

Resource(Uri u);

Response Get();

Response Post(Request r);

Response Put(Request r);

Response Delete();

Response Head();

}

shift to resource thinking
Shift to Resource Thinking

SQL

INSERT INTO CUSTOMERS (...) VALUES (...)

REST

(POST) http://example.com/customers

<Customer>...</Customer>

shift to resource thinking1
Shift to Resource Thinking

SQL

SELECT FROM CUSTOMERS WHERE ID=567

REST

(GET) http://example.com/customers/567

resources as operations
Resources as operations
  • The result of an operation can be considered a resource

API

var result = CalculateShipping(“Redmond”, “NYC”);

REST

http://example.com/calculateShipping?from=“Redmond”&to=“NYC”

content negotiation
Content Negotiation
  • Allow the client to ask for what they want
  • “I want XML”
  • “I want JSON”
  • “I want …” (HTML, CSV, etc.)

GET /customers/1234 HTTP/1.1

Host: example.com

Accept: text/xml

JSR 311 features the idea

of extensions as a way

to do content negotiation

without the headers as in

/customers.xml

/customers.json

GET /customers/1234 HTTP/1.1

Host: example.com

Accept: text/json

communicate statelessly
Communicate Statelessly
  • Stateless means that every request stands alone
    • Session is not required
    • Can be bookmarked
  • Application State lives on the Client
    • Everything that is needed to complete the request must be included in the request
  • Resource State lives on the server(s)
    • Stored in durable storage (typically)
    • May be cached
http get
“Remember that GET is supposed to be a “safe” operation, i.e. the client does not accept any obligations (such as paying you for your services) or assume any responsibility, when all it does is follow a link by issuing a GET.”

-Stefan Tilkov

http://www.infoq.com/articles/tilkov-rest-doubts

HTTP GET
get customer demo
WebGet Attribute

UriTemplate

Query String Parameters

GET CUSTOMER DeMO

http://rojacobsxps/AdventureWorksDev/api/customer/1

webget attribute
WebGet Attribute
  • WebGet Indicates you want to use an HTTP GET for this method
  • Method name is resource name
  • Arguments are query string parameters

// GET a customer

[OperationContract]

[WebGet]

CustomerDataGetCustomer(string customerId);

http://localhost/service.svc/GetCustomer?customerId=1

webget uritemplate
WebGetUriTemplate
  • UriTemplate maps the URI to parameters in your method
  • Using parameters in the Uri makes them mandatory, query string parameters are optional.

// GET a customer

[OperationContract]

[WebGet(UriTemplate = "customer/{customerId}")]

CustomerDataGetCustomer(string customerId);

http://localhost/service.svc/Customer/1

making your first restful service
Making your first RESTful Service
  • Create a WCF Service Library
  • Add a reference / using

System.ServiceModel.Web

  • Decorate your method with WebGet
  • Modify configuration
    • Change the binding from wsHttpBinding to webHttpBinding
    • Add the webHttp endpoint behavior to the endpoint
      • Note: WCF will start up without this behavior though it is not very useful configuration
get customers
Get Customers
  • Returns a collection of customers from the database
  • Issues
    • Security – you can only see orders you are allowed to see
    • Paging – stateless requests decide where to start
  • REST API
  • SOAP API

http://adventure-works.com/customer

Customer[] GetCustomers()

paging
Paging
  • Allows clients to request a subset of the collection
  • Use Query String parameters to specify start index and count

http://adventure-works.com/customer?start=200&count=25

gotcha
Gotcha!

// GET customers

[OperationContract] [WebGet(UriTemplate="customer?start={start}&count={count}")]

CustomerGroupingDataGetCustomers(int start, int count);

// POST to customers

[OperationContract]

[WebInvoke(UriTemplate = "customer")]

CustomerDataAppendCustomer(CustomerData customer);

http://adventure-works.com/customer

405 Method not allowed

slide30
Why?
  • The template matching engine tries to find the best match
  • The more specific a match is, the better
  • When the URL contains just the resource “customer”
  • The match for “customer” is a POST method
    • Return 405 Method not allowed
slide31
Why?
  • Solution
    • Don’t include the query string parameters in the UriTemplate
    • Get them instead from the WebOperationContext.Current
    • UriTemplate is now just “customer” for both GET and POST
solution
Solution

// GET customers

[OperationContract] [WebGet(UriTemplate = "customer")]

CustomerGroupingDataGetCustomers(int start, int count);

// POST to customers

[OperationContract]

[WebInvoke(UriTemplate = "customer")]

CustomerDataAppendCustomer(CustomerData customer);

http://localhost/AdventureWorksDev/api/customer

200 Ok

query string parameters
Query String Parameters

private string GetQueryString(string argName)

{

UriTemplateMatch match = WebOperationContext.Current.IncomingRequest.UriTemplateMatch;

try

{

return match.QueryParameters[argName];

}

catch (KeyNotFoundException)

{

return null;

}

}

Query String Parametersare found in here

caching
Caching
  • Use HttpRuntime.Cache to cache items on the server if it makes sense to do so

// Check the cache

CustomerDatacustomerData = (CustomerData)HttpRuntime.Cache[requestUri.ToString()];

// Not found in the cache

if (customerData == null)

{

// Try to get the customer data

customerData = CustomersCollection.GetCustomer(custId);

// Still not found

if (customerData == null)

{

outResponse.SetStatusAsNotFound(string.Format("Customer Id {0} not found", customerId));

}

else // found

{

// Set the headers

outResponse.LastModified = customerData.LastModified;

outResponse.ETag = customerData.ETag.ToString();

CacheCustomer(requestUri, customerData);

}

}

client caching
Client Caching
  • Add Expires or Cache-Control headers to provide clients with hints on caching
  • WCF Default: Cache-Control: private
    • No caching of private results

// Allow client to cache for 5 minutes

outResponse.Headers.Add("Cache-Control", "300");

conditional get
Conditional GET
  • Headers used by clients to save bandwidth if they hold cached data
  • If-Modified-Since: (Date)
    • Return the data only if it has been modified since (Date)
conditional get1
Conditional GET
  • If-None-Matches: (Etag)
    • Return the data only if there are no records matching this tag
  • If the data exists but has not been modified return 304 “Not Modified”
    • The server still has to verify that the resource exists and that it has not changed
supporting if modified since
Supporting If-Modified-Since
  • Your data should have a LastModified value
  • Update it whenever the data is written

// Set the headers

outResponse.LastModified = customerData.LastModified;

supporting if none matches
Supporting If-None-Matches
  • Your data should have a row version
  • This data is returned in an Etag header as an opaque string

// Set the headers

outResponse.ETag = customerData.ETag.ToString();

conditional get check
Conditional GET Check

private static void CheckModifiedSince(

IncomingWebRequestContextinRequest,

OutgoingWebResponseContextoutResponse,

CustomerDatacustomerData)

{

// Get the If-Modified-Since header

DateTime? modifiedSince = GetIfModifiedSince(inRequest);

// Check for conditional get If-Modified-Since

if (modifiedSince != null)

{

if (customerData.LastModified <= modifiedSince)

{

outResponse.SuppressEntityBody = true;

outResponse.StatusCode = HttpStatusCode.NotModified;

}

}

}

Not Modified?

Suppress body

Return 304 “Not Modified”

get response
GET Response
  • 200 OK
    • GET successful
  • 304 Not Modified
    • Conditional GET did not find new data
  • 400 Bad Request
    • Problem with the request of some kind
  • 404 Not Found
    • Resource was not found
  • 500 Internal Server Error
    • Everything else
http post
“You can use it to create resources underneath a parent resource and you can use it to append extra data onto the current state of a resource.”

- RESTful Web Services

http post
http post1
HTTP POST
  • POST is ambiguously defined in the HTTP spec
  • POST is the second most used RESTful verb
  • Often referred to as POST(a) for “Append”
    • Posting to a collection means to append to that collection
    • Allows the server to determine the ultimate URI
http post2
HTTP POST
  • Problem
    • How to detect duplicate POST requests?
  • Solutions
    • Use PUT (it’s Idempotent by nature)
    • Schemes involving handshaking of some kind between the client and server
    • Client generated identifier for POST
post to customers
POST to Customers
  • Appends a new customer to the collection
  • Issues
    • Security – Are you allowed to create a customer?
    • Idempotency – is this a duplicate POST request?
  • REST API
  • SOAP API

(POST) http://adventure-works.com/customers

CustomerDataAppendCustomer(CustomerData customer);

post example
POST Example

public CustomerDataAppendCustomer(CustomerData customer)

{

OutgoingWebResponseContextoutResponse = WebOperationContext.Current.OutgoingResponse;

try

{

CustomerDatanewCustomer = CustomersCollection.AppendCustomer(customer);

if (newCustomer.CustomerID != 0)

{

outResponse.SetStatusAsCreated(

BuildResourceUri("customer", newCustomer.CustomerID.ToString()));

}

return newCustomer;

}

catch (CustomerRowIDExistsException)

{

outResponse.StatusCode = HttpStatusCode.Conflict;

outResponse.StatusDescription = "RowID exists, it must be unique";

return null;

}

catch (Exception ex)

{

Log.Write(ex);

throw;

}

}

post a response
POST(a) Response
  • 200 OK
    • POST successful
  • 400 Bad Request
    • Problem with the request of some kind
  • 409 Conflict
    • Resource already exists
  • 500 Internal Server Error
    • Everything else
testing post methods
Testing POST Methods
  • Fiddler – http://www.fiddler2.com HTTP proxy
  • Use machine name instead of localhost in URI
    • IIS hosting helps with this
  • Build a request
    • Drag a GET request to the Request Builder
    • Open a GET in Visual Studio for easy formatting of XML
  • Set the Request type to POST
  • Set the request body to valid XML
  • Set the Content-Type: text/xml
http put1
HTTP PUT
  • Creates or Updates the resource
    • Completely replaces whatever was there before with the new content
    • Update the cache with new resource
  • Idempotent by design
    • Creating or Updating record 123 multiple times should result in the same value
    • Do NOT do some kind of relative calculation
put and ids
PUT and IDs
  • If you can allow the client to define an ID within a context that is unique, PUT can insert, otherwise PUT is used to update resources
  • REST API
  • SOAP API
  • Note: the first arg comes from the URI, the customer data comes from the request body

(PUT) http://adventure-works.com/customers/123

CustomerDataPutCustomer(string customerId,

CustomerData customer);

put response
PUT Response
  • 200 OK
    • Update successful
  • 201 Created
    • Insert Successful
  • 400 Bad Request
    • Problem with the request of some kind
  • 404 Not Found
    • Resource to update was not found
  • 500 Internal Server Error
    • Everything else
delete
DELETE
  • Used to delete a resource
  • Issues
    • Security – can you delete a resource
    • Cache – need to remove it from the server cache
delete response
DELETE Response
  • 200 OK
    • Delete successful
  • 400 Bad Request
    • Problem with the request of some kind
  • 404 Not Found
    • Resource to delete was not found
  • 500 Internal Server Error
    • Everything else
urimapper http module
UriMapper HTTP Module
  • RESTful people do not like ugly URIs
  • ScottGu has Many ways to rewrite URIs
  • HttpModules can rewrite the URIs as they come in
  • Jon Flanders blog
    • Using WCF WebHttpBinding and WebGet with nicer Urls
    • Modified it a bit to support my scenario

http://adventure-works.com/service.svc/customer/1

gotchca
Gotchca!
  • I installed my HttpModule in web.config under <system.web><httpModules>
  • Not working
  • Searched blogs to find out that for IIS 7 you must install under <system.webServer><modules>
  • If your HttpModule does not rewrite the URL correctly you will get 404 errors and have a hard time understanding why
content negotiation1
Content Negotiation
  • Trend is toward an extension syntax
  • Unfortunately you must specify the response format in the WebGet, WebInvoke attribute
  • You can dynamically choose your format by making your service return a stream and then serializing your content directly to the stream

http://adventure-works.com/customers.xhtml

http://adventure-works.com/customers.xml

http://adventure-works.com/customers.json

two services
Two Services
  • apixml.svc for XML
  • apijson.svc for JSON
  • UriMapper code looks for an extension on the resource and maps it to the appropriate service
    • default is XML
  • 2 .SVC files means two classes that implement 2 different contracts
content negotiation demo
Content Negotiation Demo

http://rojacobsxps/AdventureWorksDev

consuming a restful service
Consuming a RESTful Service
  • Use WCF or HttpWebRequest
  • Need a ServiceContract interface
    • Copy from service
    • Build from scratch
      • Build UriTemplates that will match up to the service
data contract schema
Data Contract Schema
  • Export Schema from Assembly
    • svcutil foo.dll /dconly
  • Generate data contracts from xsd files
    • svcutil *.xsd /dconly
using wcf on the client
Using WCF on the Client

public CustomerDataGetCustomer(string customerId,

Guid? eTag,

DateTime? modifiedSince)

{

using (var factory = new

WebChannelFactory<IAdventureWorksServiceXml>("AdventureWorks"))

{

IAdventureWorksServiceXml service =

factory.CreateChannel();

using (OperationContextScope scope =

new OperationContextScope( (IContextChannel)service))

{

OutgoingWebRequestContext request =

WebOperationContext.Current.OutgoingRequest;

if (eTag != null)

request.IfNoneMatch = eTag.ToString();

if (modifiedSince != null)

{

DateTimeFormatInfoformatInfo =

CultureInfo.InvariantCulture.DateTimeFormat;

// RFC1123Pattern

request.IfModifiedSince =

modifiedSince.Value.ToString("r", formatInfo);

}

return service.GetCustomer(customerId);

}

}

}

You must create

a scope to access the context

summary
Summary
  • RESTful services extend the reach of HTTP to your SOA
  • RESTful design is harder than you might think
  • Implementation has some tricky issues to overcome
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