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Golden rice. Vitamin A deficiency can result in night blindness and weakened immunity. It affects over 250 million people each year. I can’t see in dim light. Golden rice. Our body can synthesize vitamin A from beta-carotene. Golden rice.

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Golden rice

Golden rice

Vitamin A deficiency can result in night blindness and weakened immunity. It affects over 250 million people each year.

I can’t see in dim light.


Golden rice

Golden rice

Our body can synthesize vitamin A from beta-carotene.


Golden rice

Golden rice

Scientists have successfully transferred the genes for producing beta-carotene from maize and bacteria to rice plants.

genes


Golden rice

Golden rice

The resultant Golden Rice can produce high levels of beta-carotene in its grains.


Golden rice

A Swiss scientist developed transgenic golden rice rich in iron and vitamin A, two major nutrient deficiencies in developing countries where the major staple food is rice. This involved genetically engineering 3 proteins and the vitamin precursor β-carotene from 4 different species.


Golden rice

1

What are the advantages of genetic

engineering over traditional breeding in crop improvement


Golden rice

2.1 Biotechnology in medicine

Production of pharmaceutical products

  • human insulin

similar processes

  • human growth hormone

  • vaccines

  • monoclonal antibodies (單克隆抗體)


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

1 Human growth hormone (HGH)

  • secreted from the pituitary gland

  • important in development of bones and muscles

  • deficiency:


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

1 Human growth hormone (HGH)

  • HGH was extracted from the pituitary gland of dead people

 limited supply

 contaminated with pathogens


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

1 Human growth hormone (HGH)

  • recombinant HGH

 unlimited amount

 pure

 low cost


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

1 Human growth hormone (HGH)

  • bacteria are commonly used

- provide plasmids that act as vectors

- serve as host cells

- can be transformed easily

- can grow rapidly

- can grow in inexpensive culture media

- relatively stable culture


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

2 Vaccines

  • antigenic proteins can be produced by recombinant DNA technology

e.g. vaccines against hepatitis B


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

2 Vaccines

 Prepare a recombinant plasmid

gene for viral surface protein

plasmid


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

2 Vaccines

 Introduce the recombinant plasmid into a yeast cell

yeast cell


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

2 Vaccines

 Culture GM yeast on a large scale


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

2 Vaccines

 According to the genetic information of the viral gene, the GM yeast produces the viral surface protein


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

2 Vaccines

 The viral surface protein is collected and purified for use


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

2 Vaccines

  • traditional hepatitis B vaccines contain the whole viruses

 viruses may become active and infectious

  • recombinant hepatitis B vaccines contain only a viral surface protein

 safer to use


Principle of edible vaccine

Principle of Edible vaccine


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

3 Monoclonal antibodies

  • antibodies produced by the cell clones derived from a single parent B cell

  • highly specific


Magic bullet monoclonal antibody

"magic bullet"monoclonal antibody

  • myeloma cells – keeing dividing--immortal

  • fuse with healthy antibody-producing B-cells

  • Hybridomas produced

  • select hybridomas cells with specific antibodies

  • Grow in culture

  • Harvest monoclonal antibodies


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

3 Monoclonal antibodies

i) For diagnosis of diseases

  • recognize the surface proteins of cancer cells in tissue samples


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

3 Monoclonal antibodies

ii) For developing sensitive tests

  • home pregnancy tests

  • bind to human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) in urine


Application of monoclonal antibodies pregnancy testing kit

Application of monoclonal antibodies:Pregnancy testing kit


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

3 Monoclonal antibodies

iii) For isolating and purifying important biological molecules

  • specific to the molecule of interest


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

3 Monoclonal antibodies

  • Drawback of monoclonal antibodies produced using B cells from mice

 could stimulate an immune response in humans

Results in their rapid removal from the blood, inflammatory effects, and the production of human anti-mouse antibodies


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

In vitro / Recombinant Monoclonal antibodies:

Made by merging mouse DNA encoding the binding portion of a monoclonal antibody with human antibody-producing DNA in living cells, and the expression of this hybrid DNA through cell culture yielded partially mouse, partially human monoclonal antibody.

a human antibody with a small part of a mouse monoclonal antibody

 less likely to be destroyed in the human body


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

3 Monoclonal antibodies

  • recombinant monoclonal antibodies

  • used in the treatment of some forms of cancer

- linked with a toxic drug or a radioactive substance –magic bullet


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Gene therapy

  • to treat a disease by supplementing the defective gene with a normal gene

  • vectors for transferring a normal gene into a target cell

e.g. harmless viruses


Golden rice

Diagram of the human chromosome set, showing the location of some genes whose mutant forms can cause hereditary diseases. Conditions that can be diagnosed using DNA analysis are indicated by a red dot. 


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Gene therapy

  • ex vivo(先體外後體內) gene therapy:

cells are genetically modified outside the body and then put back into the patient


Gene therapy with a retrovirus

Gene therapy with a retrovirus


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Gene therapy

  • in vivo(體內) gene therapy:

cells are genetically modified inside the body

vectors with normal genes

direct transfer of normal genes into cells


Golden rice

Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common lethal, single-gene disorder affecting Northern Europeans and North Americans, is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene.


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Gene therapy

  • germlinegenetherapy(種系基因治療) :

corrects the genetic material of gametes or zygotes

  • genetic correction is inheritable

  • done on animals only


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Gene therapy

  • somatic cell gene therapy (體細胞基因治療) :

corrects the genetic material of somatic cells

  • genetic correction is not inheritable

  • all human trials are of this type


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Gene therapy

Potential benefits

  • treat genetic diseases, cancer and infectious diseases

  • as a preventive measure against diseases

  • correct a disease before it develops and help remove all the defective genes in the human population


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Gene therapy

Potential hazards

  • viral vectors cause diseases

  • viral vectors cause severe immune reactions

  • insertion of new genes affects the expression of existing genes


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Gene therapy

Potential hazards

  • new genes wrongly transported into non-target cells, produce too much of the missing protein or produce the protein at the wrong time


Risks involved in gene therapy

Risks involved in gene therapy

  • in an attempt experiment to treat Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency by gene therapy, a patient died in 1999.

  • The patient was injected with adenovirusescarrying a corrected gene in the hope that it would manufacture the needed enzyme.

  • He died four days later, apparently having suffered a massive immune response triggered by the use of the viral vector used to transport the gene into his cells.


Risks involved in gene therapy1

Risks involved in gene therapy

  • in an attempt experiment to treat Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency by gene therapy, a patient died in 1999.

  • The patient was injected with adenovirusescarrying a corrected gene in the hope that it would manufacture the needed enzyme.

  • He died four days later, apparently having suffered a massive immune response triggered by the use of the viral vector used to transport the gene into his cells.


Golden rice

.

Gene therapy poses many ethical and social questions

  • tampering with human genes mightlead to the practice of eugenics, a deliberate effort to control the genetic makeup of human populations.

  • The most difficult ethical question is whether we should treat human germ-line cells to correct the defect in future generations.

  • we will have to face the question of whether it is advisable, under any circumstances, to alter the genomes of human germ lines or embryos. Should we interfere with humanevolutionin this way?


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Stem cell therapy

  • unspecializedcells

  • unlimited mitotic cell division

  • can differentiate into different kinds of cells

  • Embryonic stem cells /Adult stem cells

  • Differs in their “potency”


Totipotent pluripotent multipotent

totipotent, pluripotent, multipotent?


Totipotent pluripotent multipotent1

totipotent, pluripotent, multipotent?

  • Totipotentcells can form all the cell types in a body, plus the extraembryonic, or placental, cells. Embryonic cells within the first couple of cell divisions (8-cell stage) after fertilization are the only cells that are totipotent.

  • Pluripotentcells can give rise to all of the cell types that make up the body. e.g. embryonic stem cells (16-cell stage).

  • Multipotentcells can develop into more than one cell type, but are more limited than pluripotent cells; adult stem cells and cord blood stem cells, peripheral blood stem cells are considered multipotent.


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Stem cell therapy

  • embryonic stem cells

  • from blastocysts

  • can differentiate into almost any cell types

  • (Pluripotent)


Golden rice

After fertilization, the zygote undergoes cleavage:the first few mitotic divisions multiply the total number of cells without increasing total mass.The ball of cells that implants in the uterus is a blastocyst, and contains the inner cell mass, where embryonic stem cells can be harvested.


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Stem cell therapy

  • adult stem cells

  • from childhood or adult tissues like bone marrow, blood, skeletal muscles

  • can only differentiate into a limited range of cell types “Multipotent” or unipotent


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Stem cell therapy

  • stem cells may be used to replace damaged or abnormal cells in the treatment of diseases

e.g. blood stem cells in bone marrow and in peripheral blood, cord blood (臍帶血) containing blood stem cells are used in the treatment of blood diseases (multipotent)


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Stem cell therapy

e.g. human embryonic stem cells

human blastocyst

isolate embryonic stem cells

cultured embryonic stem cells


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Stem cell therapy

e.g. human embryonic stem cells

induce the cells to differentiate into specific cell types

insulin-producing cells

  • for treating type 1 diabetes


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Stem cell therapy

e.g. human embryonic stem cells

induce the cells to differentiate into specific cell types

cardiac muscle cells

  • for treating heart disease


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Stem cell therapy

e.g. human embryonic stem cells

induce the cells to differentiate into specific cell types

neurones

  • for treating spinal cord injuries, Parkinson’s disease


Stem cell therapy stem cell cloning

Stem cell therapy / stem cell cloning

  • Since the regrown cells originate from the patient, there should be no immune rejection of the transplanted tissue.


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Stem cell therapy

  • isolation of embryonic stem cells involves destruction of human embryos

 controversial

  • adult stem cells occur in low number, are difficult to isolate and can only differentiate into a limited range of cell types


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Stem cell therapy

  • human skin cells were successfully re-programmed to become unspecialized cells in 2007 – IPS cells

Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine (2012)


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Stem cell therapy

  • human skin cells were successfully re-programmed to become unspecialized cells in 2007 –IPS cells

 may act as a limitless source of immune-compatible cells for transplantation


Sources of stem cells 1 human embryos

Sources of stem cells (1) human embryos


Sources of stem cells 2 ips induced pluripotent stem cells

Sources of stem cells(2) IPS – induced pluripotent stem cells


Sources of stem cells 2 ips induced pluripotent stem cells1

Sources of stem cells(2) IPS – induced pluripotent stem cells


Applications of ips cells

Applications of IPS cells


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Stem cell therapy

  • questions to be answered

How can we induce embryonic stem cells to differentiate into each of the desired cell types?


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Stem cell therapy

  • questions to be answered

How long can the transplanted cells last in the body?

Are re-programmed cells safe to use in therapy?


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

1 Some examples of pharmaceutical products using biotechnology include human insulin, human growth hormone, and

vaccines

.

monoclonal antibodies


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

2 Monoclonal antibodies are antibodies produced by the

cell

clones

derived from a single parent B cell.


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

3 is to treat a disease by supplementing the defective gene with a normal gene.

Gene therapy


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

4

Germ line

Somatic cell


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

5 Potential benefits of gene therapy:

a It may treat genetic diseases, cancer and infectious diseases.

b It may be used as a measure against diseases.

preventive


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

5 Potential benefits of gene therapy:

c It may correct a disease before the disease develops in the individuals and help remove all the in the human population.

defective genes


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

6 Potential hazards of gene therapy:

a Viral vectors may gain the ability to cause diseases during modification.

b Viral vectors may cause severe

.

immune reactions


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

6 Potential hazards of gene therapy:

c The insertion of new genes may affect the of existing genes.

expression


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

6 Potential hazards of gene therapy:

d The new genes may be wrongly transported into cells. They may also produce too much of the missing protein or produce the protein at the wrong time. This results in other health problems.

non-target


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

6 Potential hazards of gene therapy:

e The patient is repeatedly exposed to possible hazards when

gene therapy is required.

repeated


Golden rice

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

7 Stem cells may be used in the treatment of type diabetes, heart disease, muscular dystrophy,

1

spinal cord

injuries, Parkinson’s disease, etc.


Golden rice

2.2 Biotechnology in agriculture

What are transgenic organisms?

  • organisms whose genetic material has been altered through genetic engineering

Golden Rice


Golden rice

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

  • transgenic organisms are useful in scientific research

 for the study of gene functions

 as disease models

 for toxicity tests for new products


Golden rice

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

Transgenic plants in agriculture and the food industry

  • many transgenic plants are major crops

maize (31%)

soya bean (52%)

cotton (12%)

canola (5%)


Golden rice

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

Transgenic plants in agriculture and the food industry

  • many transgenic plants are major crops

 for food use and as parents in traditional breeding

  • introduce genes for improving the yields or nutritional value of crops


Golden rice

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

1 Herbicide resistant soya beans and maize

  • weeds can be killed by herbicide


Golden rice

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

2 Pest resistant maize and cotton

  • toxin is pest-specific

  • reduces the use of chemical pesticides


Golden rice

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

3 Disease resistant papayas

viral resistant

non-transgenic

  • prevents crops from being damaged by diseases

  • reduces the use of chemical pesticides


Golden rice

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

4 Rice, wheat and tomatoes tolerant to cold, drought or high salinity of soil

  • crops can be grown in winter, dry climates and on saline lands


Golden rice

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

5 Tomatoes with a longer shelf life

transgenic

non-transgenic

  • reduces the loss of fruits

  • fruits of better quality


Golden rice

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

6 Soya beans, canola and rice with improved nutritional value

  • higher levels of ‘good’ lipids help prevent heart disease


Golden rice

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

Animation

6 Soya beans, canola and rice with improved nutritional value

  • higher levels of beta-carotene, vitamin E, iron, zinc or lysine prevent dietary deficiencies


Golden rice

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

Transgenic animals in agriculture and the food industry

  • introduce genes for improving the productivity and quality of farm animals


Golden rice

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

1 Fast-growing salmon

non-transgenic

transgenic

  • decreases overfishing of wild salmon


Golden rice

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

2 Cold resistant salmon

  • expands the area for fish farming

3 Transgenic pigs that produce more lean tissue and less fat

  • improves human health


Golden rice

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

4 Transgenic goats that produce milk with improved composition and production

  • produces lactose-free milk suitable for people who cannot tolerate lactose


Golden rice

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

4 Transgenic goats that produce milk with improved composition and production

  • produces milk with a lower level of ‘bad’ lipids which is healthier for the heart


Golden rice

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

4 Transgenic goats that produce milk with improved composition and production

  • increases milk production


Golden rice

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

5 Transgenic sheep that produce more wool of better quality

  • improves the quality of wool

  • increases wool production


Golden rice

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

6 Transgenic pigs that produce 60% less phosphorus in their manure

  • reduces pollution caused by manure


Golden rice

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

1 are organisms whose genetic material has been altered through genetic engineering.

Transgenic organisms


Golden rice

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

2 Uses of transgenic plants and animals in scientific research:

a They are used for the study of

functions.

gene

b They act as models.

disease

c They are used for tests for new products.

toxicity


Golden rice

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

3 Examples of desirable characteristics built into transgenic plants:

  • resistance to herbicides,

pests

and

diseases

  • tolerance to , or high salinity of soil

cold

drought


Golden rice

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

3 Examples of desirable characteristics built into transgenic plants:

  • delayed or

softening

ripening

  • improved

nutritional value


Golden rice

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

4 Examples of desirable characteristics built into transgenic animals:

  • faster growth

  • resistance

cold

  • improved meat or milk

and

production

composition


Golden rice

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

4 Examples of desirable characteristics built into transgenic animals:

  • improved wool quality and production

  • manure with low levels of

phosphorus


Golden rice

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

5 Uses of transgenic plants and animals in agriculture:

a Transgenic plants and animals with improved productivity and quality are produced. They may provide a more reliable

food

for all people.

supply


Golden rice

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

5 Uses of transgenic plants and animals in agriculture:

b They can be used as in traditional breeding.

parents


Golden rice

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

5 Uses of transgenic plants and animals in agriculture:

c They can help protect the environment by reducing the use of chemical or producing less polluting .

pesticides

manure


Golden rice

1

In addition to beta-carotene, what

other useful products can be produced from genetic engineering?

Human insulin, human growth factor, vaccines and monoclonal antibodies can be produced from genetic engineering.


Golden rice

2

What are the advantages of genetic

engineering over traditional breeding in crop improvement?

Genetic engineering provides a quicker and more precise method to modify the genetic make-up and hence the characteristics of crops.


Golden rice

2

What are the advantages of genetic

engineering over traditional breeding in crop improvement?

It also allows the transfer of new characteristics from completely non-related species.


Golden rice

Biotechnology

applications in medicine include

production of pharmaceutical products

gene therapy

stem cell therapy


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production of pharmaceutical products

examples

human insulin

vaccines

monoclonal antibodies

human growth hormone


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gene therapy

divided into

germ line gene therapy

somatic cell gene therapy


Golden rice

Biotechnology

used to produce

transgenic plants and animals

used in agriculture to improve

productivity

quality


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