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Golden rice. Vitamin A deficiency can result in night blindness and weakened immunity. It affects over 250 million people each year. I can’t see in dim light. Golden rice. Our body can synthesize vitamin A from beta-carotene. Golden rice.

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slide2

Golden rice

Vitamin A deficiency can result in night blindness and weakened immunity. It affects over 250 million people each year.

I can’t see in dim light.

slide3

Golden rice

Our body can synthesize vitamin A from beta-carotene.

slide4

Golden rice

Scientists have successfully transferred the genes for producing beta-carotene from maize and bacteria to rice plants.

genes

slide5

Golden rice

The resultant Golden Rice can produce high levels of beta-carotene in its grains.

slide6

A Swiss scientist developed transgenic golden rice rich in iron and vitamin A, two major nutrient deficiencies in developing countries where the major staple food is rice. This involved genetically engineering 3 proteins and the vitamin precursor β-carotene from 4 different species.

slide7

1

What are the advantages of genetic

engineering over traditional breeding in crop improvement

slide8

2.1 Biotechnology in medicine

Production of pharmaceutical products

  • human insulin

similar processes

  • human growth hormone
  • vaccines
  • monoclonal antibodies (單克隆抗體)
slide9

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

1 Human growth hormone (HGH)

  • secreted from the pituitary gland
  • important in development of bones and muscles
  • deficiency:
slide10

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

1 Human growth hormone (HGH)

  • HGH was extracted from the pituitary gland of dead people

 limited supply

 contaminated with pathogens

slide11

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

1 Human growth hormone (HGH)

  • recombinant HGH

 unlimited amount

 pure

 low cost

slide12

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

1 Human growth hormone (HGH)

  • bacteria are commonly used

- provide plasmids that act as vectors

- serve as host cells

- can be transformed easily

- can grow rapidly

- can grow in inexpensive culture media

- relatively stable culture

slide13

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

2 Vaccines

  • antigenic proteins can be produced by recombinant DNA technology

e.g. vaccines against hepatitis B

slide14

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

2 Vaccines

 Prepare a recombinant plasmid

gene for viral surface protein

plasmid

slide15

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

2 Vaccines

 Introduce the recombinant plasmid into a yeast cell

yeast cell

slide16

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

2 Vaccines

 Culture GM yeast on a large scale

slide17

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

2 Vaccines

 According to the genetic information of the viral gene, the GM yeast produces the viral surface protein

slide18

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

2 Vaccines

 The viral surface protein is collected and purified for use

slide19

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

2 Vaccines

  • traditional hepatitis B vaccines contain the whole viruses

 viruses may become active and infectious

  • recombinant hepatitis B vaccines contain only a viral surface protein

 safer to use

slide21

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

3 Monoclonal antibodies

  • antibodies produced by the cell clones derived from a single parent B cell
  • highly specific
magic bullet monoclonal antibody
"magic bullet"monoclonal antibody
  • myeloma cells – keeing dividing--immortal
  • fuse with healthy antibody-producing B-cells
  • Hybridomas produced
  • select hybridomas cells with specific antibodies
  • Grow in culture
  • Harvest monoclonal antibodies
slide23

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

3 Monoclonal antibodies

i) For diagnosis of diseases

  • recognize the surface proteins of cancer cells in tissue samples
slide24

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

3 Monoclonal antibodies

ii) For developing sensitive tests

  • home pregnancy tests
  • bind to human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) in urine
slide26

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

3 Monoclonal antibodies

iii) For isolating and purifying important biological molecules

  • specific to the molecule of interest
slide27

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

3 Monoclonal antibodies

  • Drawback of monoclonal antibodies produced using B cells from mice

 could stimulate an immune response in humans

Results in their rapid removal from the blood, inflammatory effects, and the production of human anti-mouse antibodies

slide28

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

In vitro / Recombinant Monoclonal antibodies:

Made by merging mouse DNA encoding the binding portion of a monoclonal antibody with human antibody-producing DNA in living cells, and the expression of this hybrid DNA through cell culture yielded partially mouse, partially human monoclonal antibody.

a human antibody with a small part of a mouse monoclonal antibody

 less likely to be destroyed in the human body

slide29

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

3 Monoclonal antibodies

  • recombinant monoclonal antibodies
  • used in the treatment of some forms of cancer

- linked with a toxic drug or a radioactive substance –magic bullet

slide30

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Gene therapy

  • to treat a disease by supplementing the defective gene with a normal gene
  • vectors for transferring a normal gene into a target cell

e.g. harmless viruses

slide31

Diagram of the human chromosome set, showing the location of some genes whose mutant forms can cause hereditary diseases. Conditions that can be diagnosed using DNA analysis are indicated by a red dot. 

slide32

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Gene therapy

  • ex vivo(先體外後體內) gene therapy:

cells are genetically modified outside the body and then put back into the patient

slide34

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Gene therapy

  • in vivo(體內) gene therapy:

cells are genetically modified inside the body

vectors with normal genes

direct transfer of normal genes into cells

slide36

Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common lethal, single-gene disorder affecting Northern Europeans and North Americans, is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene.

slide37

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Gene therapy

  • germlinegenetherapy(種系基因治療) :

corrects the genetic material of gametes or zygotes

  • genetic correction is inheritable
  • done on animals only
slide38

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Gene therapy

  • somatic cell gene therapy (體細胞基因治療) :

corrects the genetic material of somatic cells

  • genetic correction is not inheritable
  • all human trials are of this type
slide39

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Gene therapy

Potential benefits

  • treat genetic diseases, cancer and infectious diseases
  • as a preventive measure against diseases
  • correct a disease before it develops and help remove all the defective genes in the human population
slide40

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Gene therapy

Potential hazards

  • viral vectors cause diseases
  • viral vectors cause severe immune reactions
  • insertion of new genes affects the expression of existing genes
slide41

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Gene therapy

Potential hazards

  • new genes wrongly transported into non-target cells, produce too much of the missing protein or produce the protein at the wrong time
risks involved in gene therapy
Risks involved in gene therapy
  • in an attempt experiment to treat Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency by gene therapy, a patient died in 1999.
  • The patient was injected with adenovirusescarrying a corrected gene in the hope that it would manufacture the needed enzyme.
  • He died four days later, apparently having suffered a massive immune response triggered by the use of the viral vector used to transport the gene into his cells.
risks involved in gene therapy1
Risks involved in gene therapy
  • in an attempt experiment to treat Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency by gene therapy, a patient died in 1999.
  • The patient was injected with adenovirusescarrying a corrected gene in the hope that it would manufacture the needed enzyme.
  • He died four days later, apparently having suffered a massive immune response triggered by the use of the viral vector used to transport the gene into his cells.
slide44
.

Gene therapy poses many ethical and social questions

  • tampering with human genes mightlead to the practice of eugenics, a deliberate effort to control the genetic makeup of human populations.
  • The most difficult ethical question is whether we should treat human germ-line cells to correct the defect in future generations.
  • we will have to face the question of whether it is advisable, under any circumstances, to alter the genomes of human germ lines or embryos. Should we interfere with humanevolutionin this way?
slide45

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Stem cell therapy

  • unspecializedcells
  • unlimited mitotic cell division
  • can differentiate into different kinds of cells
  • Embryonic stem cells /Adult stem cells
  • Differs in their “potency”
totipotent pluripotent multipotent1
totipotent, pluripotent, multipotent?
  • Totipotentcells can form all the cell types in a body, plus the extraembryonic, or placental, cells. Embryonic cells within the first couple of cell divisions (8-cell stage) after fertilization are the only cells that are totipotent.
  • Pluripotentcells can give rise to all of the cell types that make up the body. e.g. embryonic stem cells (16-cell stage).
  • Multipotentcells can develop into more than one cell type, but are more limited than pluripotent cells; adult stem cells and cord blood stem cells, peripheral blood stem cells are considered multipotent.
slide48

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Stem cell therapy

  • embryonic stem cells
  • from blastocysts
  • can differentiate into almost any cell types
  • (Pluripotent)
slide49

After fertilization, the zygote undergoes cleavage:the first few mitotic divisions multiply the total number of cells without increasing total mass.The ball of cells that implants in the uterus is a blastocyst, and contains the inner cell mass, where embryonic stem cells can be harvested.

slide50

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Stem cell therapy

  • adult stem cells
  • from childhood or adult tissues like bone marrow, blood, skeletal muscles
  • can only differentiate into a limited range of cell types “Multipotent” or unipotent
slide51

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Stem cell therapy

  • stem cells may be used to replace damaged or abnormal cells in the treatment of diseases

e.g. blood stem cells in bone marrow and in peripheral blood, cord blood (臍帶血) containing blood stem cells are used in the treatment of blood diseases (multipotent)

slide52

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Stem cell therapy

e.g. human embryonic stem cells

human blastocyst

isolate embryonic stem cells

cultured embryonic stem cells

slide53

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Stem cell therapy

e.g. human embryonic stem cells

induce the cells to differentiate into specific cell types

insulin-producing cells

  • for treating type 1 diabetes
slide54

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Stem cell therapy

e.g. human embryonic stem cells

induce the cells to differentiate into specific cell types

cardiac muscle cells

  • for treating heart disease
slide55

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Stem cell therapy

e.g. human embryonic stem cells

induce the cells to differentiate into specific cell types

neurones

  • for treating spinal cord injuries, Parkinson’s disease
stem cell therapy stem cell cloning
Stem cell therapy / stem cell cloning
  • Since the regrown cells originate from the patient, there should be no immune rejection of the transplanted tissue.
slide57

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Stem cell therapy

  • isolation of embryonic stem cells involves destruction of human embryos

 controversial

  • adult stem cells occur in low number, are difficult to isolate and can only differentiate into a limited range of cell types
slide58

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Stem cell therapy

  • human skin cells were successfully re-programmed to become unspecialized cells in 2007 – IPS cells

Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine (2012)

slide59

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Stem cell therapy

  • human skin cells were successfully re-programmed to become unspecialized cells in 2007 –IPS cells

 may act as a limitless source of immune-compatible cells for transplantation

slide65

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Stem cell therapy

  • questions to be answered

How can we induce embryonic stem cells to differentiate into each of the desired cell types?

slide66

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

Stem cell therapy

  • questions to be answered

How long can the transplanted cells last in the body?

Are re-programmed cells safe to use in therapy?

slide67

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

1 Some examples of pharmaceutical products using biotechnology include human insulin, human growth hormone, and

vaccines

.

monoclonal antibodies

slide68

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

2 Monoclonal antibodies are antibodies produced by the

cell

clones

derived from a single parent B cell.

slide69

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

3 is to treat a disease by supplementing the defective gene with a normal gene.

Gene therapy

slide70

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

4

Germ line

Somatic cell

slide71

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

5 Potential benefits of gene therapy:

a It may treat genetic diseases, cancer and infectious diseases.

b It may be used as a measure against diseases.

preventive

slide72

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

5 Potential benefits of gene therapy:

c It may correct a disease before the disease develops in the individuals and help remove all the in the human population.

defective genes

slide73

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

6 Potential hazards of gene therapy:

a Viral vectors may gain the ability to cause diseases during modification.

b Viral vectors may cause severe

.

immune reactions

slide74

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

6 Potential hazards of gene therapy:

c The insertion of new genes may affect the of existing genes.

expression

slide75

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

6 Potential hazards of gene therapy:

d The new genes may be wrongly transported into cells. They may also produce too much of the missing protein or produce the protein at the wrong time. This results in other health problems.

non-target

slide76

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

6 Potential hazards of gene therapy:

e The patient is repeatedly exposed to possible hazards when

gene therapy is required.

repeated

slide77

2.1

Biotechnology in medicine

7 Stem cells may be used in the treatment of type diabetes, heart disease, muscular dystrophy,

1

spinal cord

injuries, Parkinson’s disease, etc.

slide78

2.2 Biotechnology in agriculture

What are transgenic organisms?

  • organisms whose genetic material has been altered through genetic engineering

Golden Rice

slide79

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

  • transgenic organisms are useful in scientific research

 for the study of gene functions

 as disease models

 for toxicity tests for new products

slide80

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

Transgenic plants in agriculture and the food industry

  • many transgenic plants are major crops

maize (31%)

soya bean (52%)

cotton (12%)

canola (5%)

slide81

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

Transgenic plants in agriculture and the food industry

  • many transgenic plants are major crops

 for food use and as parents in traditional breeding

  • introduce genes for improving the yields or nutritional value of crops
slide82

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

1 Herbicide resistant soya beans and maize

  • weeds can be killed by herbicide
slide83

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

2 Pest resistant maize and cotton

  • toxin is pest-specific
  • reduces the use of chemical pesticides
slide84

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

3 Disease resistant papayas

viral resistant

non-transgenic

  • prevents crops from being damaged by diseases
  • reduces the use of chemical pesticides
slide85

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

4 Rice, wheat and tomatoes tolerant to cold, drought or high salinity of soil

  • crops can be grown in winter, dry climates and on saline lands
slide86

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

5 Tomatoes with a longer shelf life

transgenic

non-transgenic

  • reduces the loss of fruits
  • fruits of better quality
slide87

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

6 Soya beans, canola and rice with improved nutritional value

  • higher levels of ‘good’ lipids help prevent heart disease
slide88

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

Animation

6 Soya beans, canola and rice with improved nutritional value

  • higher levels of beta-carotene, vitamin E, iron, zinc or lysine prevent dietary deficiencies
slide89

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

Transgenic animals in agriculture and the food industry

  • introduce genes for improving the productivity and quality of farm animals
slide90

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

1 Fast-growing salmon

non-transgenic

transgenic

  • decreases overfishing of wild salmon
slide91

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

2 Cold resistant salmon

  • expands the area for fish farming

3 Transgenic pigs that produce more lean tissue and less fat

  • improves human health
slide92

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

4 Transgenic goats that produce milk with improved composition and production

  • produces lactose-free milk suitable for people who cannot tolerate lactose
slide93

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

4 Transgenic goats that produce milk with improved composition and production

  • produces milk with a lower level of ‘bad’ lipids which is healthier for the heart
slide94

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

4 Transgenic goats that produce milk with improved composition and production

  • increases milk production
slide95

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

5 Transgenic sheep that produce more wool of better quality

  • improves the quality of wool
  • increases wool production
slide96

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

6 Transgenic pigs that produce 60% less phosphorus in their manure

  • reduces pollution caused by manure
slide97

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

1 are organisms whose genetic material has been altered through genetic engineering.

Transgenic organisms

slide98

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

2 Uses of transgenic plants and animals in scientific research:

a They are used for the study of

functions.

gene

b They act as models.

disease

c They are used for tests for new products.

toxicity

slide99

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

3 Examples of desirable characteristics built into transgenic plants:

  • resistance to herbicides,

pests

and

diseases

  • tolerance to , or high salinity of soil

cold

drought

slide100

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

3 Examples of desirable characteristics built into transgenic plants:

  • delayed or

softening

ripening

  • improved

nutritional value

slide101

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

4 Examples of desirable characteristics built into transgenic animals:

  • faster growth
  • resistance

cold

  • improved meat or milk

and

production

composition

slide102

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

4 Examples of desirable characteristics built into transgenic animals:

  • improved wool quality and production
  • manure with low levels of

phosphorus

slide103

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

5 Uses of transgenic plants and animals in agriculture:

a Transgenic plants and animals with improved productivity and quality are produced. They may provide a more reliable

food

for all people.

supply

slide104

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

5 Uses of transgenic plants and animals in agriculture:

b They can be used as in traditional breeding.

parents

slide105

2.2

Biotechnology in agriculture

5 Uses of transgenic plants and animals in agriculture:

c They can help protect the environment by reducing the use of chemical or producing less polluting .

pesticides

manure

slide106

1

In addition to beta-carotene, what

other useful products can be produced from genetic engineering?

Human insulin, human growth factor, vaccines and monoclonal antibodies can be produced from genetic engineering.

slide107

2

What are the advantages of genetic

engineering over traditional breeding in crop improvement?

Genetic engineering provides a quicker and more precise method to modify the genetic make-up and hence the characteristics of crops.

slide108

2

What are the advantages of genetic

engineering over traditional breeding in crop improvement?

It also allows the transfer of new characteristics from completely non-related species.

slide109

Biotechnology

applications in medicine include

production of pharmaceutical products

gene therapy

stem cell therapy

slide110

production of pharmaceutical products

examples

human insulin

vaccines

monoclonal antibodies

human growth hormone

slide111

gene therapy

divided into

germ line gene therapy

somatic cell gene therapy

slide112

Biotechnology

used to produce

transgenic plants and animals

used in agriculture to improve

productivity

quality

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