A secret information hiding scheme based on switching tree coding
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A Secret Information Hiding Scheme Based on Switching Tree Coding. Speaker: Chin-Chen Chang. Outline. VQ image compression Watermarking Search order coding (SOC) Switching tree coding (STC). VQ Image Compression. VQ Compression. w. h. Image. Index table. Vector Quantization Encoder.

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A Secret Information Hiding Scheme Based on Switching Tree Coding

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A secret information hiding scheme based on switching tree coding

A Secret Information Hiding Scheme Based on Switching Tree Coding

Speaker: Chin-Chen Chang


Outline

Outline

  • VQ image compression

  • Watermarking

  • Search order coding (SOC)

  • Switching tree coding (STC)


Vq image compression

VQ Image Compression


A secret information hiding scheme based on switching tree coding

VQ Compression

w

h

Image

Index table

Vector Quantization Encoder


A secret information hiding scheme based on switching tree coding

VQ Compression

w

h

Image

Index table

Vector Quantization Decoder


Watermarking

Watermarking

Accuracy rate 99.95%

PSNR = 29.62 dB


A secret information hiding scheme based on switching tree coding

Finds the nearest pairs


A secret information hiding scheme based on switching tree coding

CW1

,CW2

CW4, CW5

CW6, CW7

CW0, CW8, CW13, CW14

hide 1

,CW3

CW11

CW15, CW10

CW12, CW9

Unused

hide 0

  • Find d(CW0, CW8) > TH

    d(CW13, CW14) > TH


A secret information hiding scheme based on switching tree coding

CW0, CW8, CW13, CW14

Unused

Encode

Index Table

Index Table


A secret information hiding scheme based on switching tree coding

1

0

0

1

  • Water mark: 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0

1

0

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

0

0

Index Table

Water mark

CW1, CW2,

CW4, CW5

CW6, CW7

CW11, CW3

CW15, CW10

CW12, CW9

hide 1

hide 0


A secret information hiding scheme based on switching tree coding

1

0

0

1

  • Water mark: 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0

1

0

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

0

0

Index Table

Water mark

CW1, CW2,

CW4, CW5

CW6, CW7

CW11, CW3

CW15, CW10

CW12, CW9

hide 1

hide 0


A secret information hiding scheme based on switching tree coding

1

0

0

1

  • Water mark: 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0

1

0

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

0

0

Index Table

Water mark


Search order coding soc

Search-Order Coding (SOC)


An example for indices of vq

An example for indices of VQ


Search order coding soc1

Search-Order Coding (SOC)

Searched point

Non-searched point


A secret information hiding scheme based on switching tree coding

Search-Order Coding (SOC)

Indicator

The compressing steps

P1 = 1 00011111

P2 = 1 11001111

P3 = 0 00

P6 = 0 10

Compression codes = 100011111 111001111 000 …


Information hiding on the soc codes

Information hiding on the SOC codes

  • The proposed scheme:

    - Information hiding:

    to embed secret data into host image

    - Steganography :

    to embed secret data into host image and the interceptors will not notice the existence of secret data

    - Based on SOC


Information hiding on the soc codes1

OIV

(original index value)

Information hiding on the SOC codes

  • Main idea:

    Ex. receiver receives the compression codes :

    010101101110110110011000011

SOC

OIV

SOC

SOC

It means that the embedded secret data is “01100” if SOC is represented to hide “0” and OIV is represented to hide “1”.


Information hiding on the soc codes2

Information hiding on the SOC codes

  • Method:

    ex. A 3*3 index table:

If the secret data is “111110100”, then the hiding position of each bit will be in the raster scan order.


Information hiding on the soc codes3

hide “0”

SOC ====> there is nothing that needs to change for its

compression codes

hide “1”

SOC ====> translate SOC into OIV

(give up SOC coding and keep the OIV)

hide “1”

OIV ====> there is nothing that needs to change

hide “0”

OIV ====> translate OIV into SOC

ex.

11

(SOC)

Information hiding on the SOC codes

Defined: “0”  embedded into SOC and

“1”  embedded into OIV.

  • Embedding phase:

+ OIV


Information hiding on the soc codes4

compression codes are still OIV: 100010010

translate SOC into OIV : 000 => 100011110

translate OIV into SOC : 100100000 => 01100100000

Information hiding on the SOC codes

  • Ex.


Information hiding on the soc codes5

Information hiding on the SOC codes

  • Cost table (bits):


Information hiding on the soc codes6

Information hiding on the SOC codes

  • Security:

    For enhancing the security of our method, the position in the index table for hiding each bit of secret data can be determined by using pseudo random number generator, and the secret data can be encrypted by using traditional cryptography system such as DES or RSA in advance.


Experimental results

Experimental results


Experimental results1

Experimental results


Experimental results2

Experimental results


Experimental results3

Experimental results


Switching tree coding stc

Switching tree coding (STC)


Switching tree coding stc1

Switching-tree coding (STC)

  • Sheu proposed the STC algorithm in 1999

  • Re-encode the index table

U

L

the current index


Switching tree coding stc2

Switching-tree coding (STC)

  • If P = 7, then P = U

    • P’ = ‘11’

  • If P = 10, then P = L

    • P’ = ‘10’


A secret information hiding scheme based on switching tree coding

  • If P = 14, then P = A in index (3)

    • P’ = ‘01’ || index (3) = ‘0100011’

  • If P = 17, then

    • P’ = ‘01’ || (17) = ‘0010001’


Information hiding on the stc codes ihstc

Information Hiding on the STC codes (IHSTC)


Information hiding on the stc codes ihstc1

Information Hiding on the STC codes (IHSTC)

  • Watermark: 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 …

Index table


Information hiding on the stc codes ihstc2

P’ = ‘00’||(10)

‘00’||(25)

‘00’||(21) …

‘00’||(17)

Information Hiding on the STC codes (IHSTC)

  • Watermark: 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 …


Information hiding on the stc codes ihstc3

‘10’

Information Hiding on the STC codes (IHSTC)

  • Watermark: 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 …

P’ = ‘00’||(10)

‘00’||(25)

‘00’||(21) …

‘00’||(17)


Information hiding on the stc codes ihstc4

‘10’

Information Hiding on the STC codes (IHSTC)

  • Watermark: 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 …

P’ = ‘00’||(10)

‘00’||(25)

‘00’||(21) …

‘00’||(17)

‘10’‘00’||(128) …


Information hiding on the stc codes ihstc5

‘11’

Information Hiding on the STC codes (IHSTC)

  • Watermark: 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 …

P’ = ‘00’||(10)

‘00’||(25)

‘00’||(21) …

‘00’||(17)

‘10’‘00’||(128) …

‘10’


Three binary connection tree

Three binary connection tree


Three binary connection tree1

Three binary connection tree

  • If U-length > L-length then

    • Tree B

  • If U-length < L-length then

    • Tree C

  • Otherwise Tree A

Tree B

Tree C


Experiment results

Experiment results

Image size = 512*512, n = 3 and |H| = 1024


Experiment results1

Experiment results

Image size = 512*512, n = 3 and |H| = 2048

Image size = 512*512, n = 3 and |H| = NSTC


A secret information hiding scheme based on switching tree coding

Image size = 512*512, n = 5 and |H| = 1024

Image size = 512*512, n = 5 and |H| = 2048

Image size = 512*512, n = 5 and |H| = NSTC


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