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RTU1A-5. A 25 GHz 3.3 dB NF Low Noise Amplifier based upon Slow Wave Transmission Lines and the 0.18 μm CMOS Technology. A. Sayag (1) , S. Levin (2) , D. Regev (2) , D. Zfira (2) , S. Shapira (2) , D. Goren (3) and D. Ritter (1)

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Rtu1a 5
RTU1A-5

A 25 GHz 3.3 dB NF Low Noise Amplifier based upon Slow Wave Transmission Lines and the 0.18 μm CMOS Technology

A. Sayag(1), S. Levin(2), D. Regev(2), D. Zfira(2), S. Shapira(2), D. Goren(3) and D. Ritter(1)

(1) Department of Electrical Engineering, Technion, Haifa, Israel(2) Tower Semiconductors inc., Migdal HaEmek, Israel(3) IBM Haifa Research Laboratories, Haifa, Israel

RFIC – Atlanta June 15-17, 2008


Outline
Outline

  • Low Noise Amplifier design methodology

  • New semi-analytic model for slow wave transmission lines

  • LNA performance

RFIC – Atlanta June 15-17, 2008


Motivation
Motivation

  • Can we get close to the transistor minimum NF in 24GHz LNA design?

@ 24GHz

Best 0.18 μm 24 GHz LNA: NF=3.9

[Shih-Chieh Shin et al., IEEE MWCL, 2005.]

RFIC – Atlanta June 15-17, 2008


Lna design methodology
LNA Design Methodology

  • Determine the optimal current density

  • Determine critical circuit element values

  • Choose the transistor width

RFIC – Atlanta June 15-17, 2008


Transistor performance determined by current density
Transistor Performance Determined by Current Density

@ 24GHz

@ 24GHz

@ 24GHz

RFIC – Atlanta June 15-17, 2008


Transistor performance determined by current density1
Transistor Performance Determined by Current Density

RFIC – Atlanta June 15-17, 2008


Circuit topology common source with inductive source degeneration
Circuit Topology: Common source with inductive source degeneration

RFIC – Atlanta June 15-17, 2008


Source inductor value for each width
Source Inductor value for each Width degeneration

RFIC – Atlanta June 15-17, 2008


Example source inductor for w 40 m
Example: Source Inductor for W=40 degenerationμm

RFIC – Atlanta June 15-17, 2008


How does the insertion loss of the input matching network depend on transistor width
How does the Insertion Loss of the Input Matching Network Depend on Transistor Width?

  • Equal Insertion loss contours

  • Each point on the Smith Chart corresponds to a hypothetical transistor input impedance

  • Input impedance is matched to 50 ohms by a matching network with inductors having Q=20

RFIC – Atlanta June 15-17, 2008


Insertion loss map of the input matching network with q 10
Insertion Loss Map of the Input Matching Network with Q = 10 Depend on Transistor Width?

RFIC – Atlanta June 15-17, 2008


Insertion loss map of the input matching network with q 30
Insertion Loss Map of the Input Matching Network with Q = 30 Depend on Transistor Width?

RFIC – Atlanta June 15-17, 2008


We need q 20
We need Q > 20 ! Depend on Transistor Width?

RFIC – Atlanta June 15-17, 2008


Choosing the transistor widths assuming a two identical stage amplifier
Choosing the Transistor Widths Depend on Transistor Width?(assuming a two identical stage amplifier)

* gS - normalized source gain factor

RFIC – Atlanta June 15-17, 2008


Choosing the transistor widths assuming a two identical stage amplifier1
Choosing the Transistor Widths Depend on Transistor Width?(assuming a two identical stage amplifier)

RFIC – Atlanta June 15-17, 2008


High q slow wave transmission lines
High Q Slow Wave Transmission Lines Depend on Transistor Width?

  • Effective dielectric constant larger than that of the surrounding dielectric material

  • The effective dielectric constant determined by geometry

RFIC – Atlanta June 15-17, 2008


Properties of slow wave tl
Properties of Slow Wave TL Depend on Transistor Width?

  • Isolation from the lossy silicon substrate

  • Shorter wavelength  shorter matching networks

  • Lower loss per wave length higher Q of resonators

  • Smaller die area

  • Higher characteristic impedance

  • Complicated EM simulations

  • Complicated layout

RFIC – Atlanta June 15-17, 2008


Measured and simulated slow wave transmission line parameters
Measured and Simulated Slow Wave Transmission Line Parameters

twice the effective dielectric cons. of SiO2

RFIC – Atlanta June 15-17, 2008


Properties of slow wave transmission line
Properties of ParametersSlow Wave Transmission Line

RFIC – Atlanta June 15-17, 2008


Our compact analytic rlcg model of slow wave transmission lines
Our Compact Analytic RLCG Model of Slow Wave Transmission Lines

*A. Sayag et al., submitted to TMTT

RFIC – Atlanta June 15-17, 2008


Using our compact model to predict slow wave tl performance
Using our Compact Model to predict Slow wave TL performance Lines

RFIC – Atlanta June 15-17, 2008


Low noise amplifier
Low Noise Amplifier Lines

  • All the matching networks are slow wave transmission lines

RFIC – Atlanta June 15-17, 2008


Measured and simulated performance
Measured and Simulated Performance Lines

RFIC – Atlanta June 15-17, 2008


Simulated noise contributions
Simulated Noise Contributions Lines

  • Transistors: 70%

  • Transmissions lines: 23%

  • Capacitor parasitics: 7%

RFIC – Atlanta June 15-17, 2008


Comparison with state of the art lnas
Comparison with State of the Art LNAs Lines

[1] Shih-ChiehShin et al., IEEE Microwave and Wireless Component Letters, July, 2005.

[2] E. Adabi et al., " RFIC Symposium, June 3-5, 2007, Honolulu, Hawaii.

RFIC – Atlanta June 15-17, 2008


Conclusions
Conclusions Lines

  • LNA design methodology presented.

  • New analytic model of slow wave transmission lines.

  • Record 2.8dB NF @ 24 GHz obtained using 0.18 μm technology.

  • Slow wave transmission lines contributed only 23% of the total noise.

  • Lower NF should be achieved using more advanced technologies

RFIC – Atlanta June 15-17, 2008


Thank You! Lines

RFIC – Atlanta June 15-17, 2008


Testing our model comparison between slow wave transmission line and grounded coplanar waveguide
Testing our model: Comparison between Slow Wave Transmission Line and Grounded Coplanar Waveguide

Grounded coplanar

Slow wave

RFIC – Atlanta June 15-17, 2008


Comparison of slow wave and grounded coplanar waveguide
Comparison of Slow Wave and Grounded Coplanar Waveguide Line and Grounded Coplanar Waveguide

RFIC – Atlanta June 15-17, 2008


Comparison between slow wave transmission line and coplanar waveguide
Comparison between Slow Wave Transmission Line and Coplanar Waveguide

Coplanar Waveguide

slow wave

RFIC – Atlanta June 15-17, 2008


Comparison between slow wave and coplanar waveguide
Comparison between Slow Wave and Waveguide Coplanar Waveguide

RFIC – Atlanta June 15-17, 2008


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