Millennium Development goals slideshow. By Christi Taylor & Austin Thornhill. Millennium development goal # 1. Status on goal #1. Zambia. Kazakhstan. Goal was achieved in 2004 Poverty rate has gone from 46.7% in 2001 to 5.3% in 2011
By Christi Taylor & Austin Thornhill
Goal was achieved in 2004
Poverty rate has gone from 46.7% in 2001 to 5.3% in 2011
Target 1+ for the country is to now halve the number of people below the poverty line in Rural areas
With poverty no longer being a major factor of hunger, there was a focus to halve the malnutrition rate for children under five years of age. It has also been achieved.
Although Kazakhstan has already accomplished its goal, Zambia is far from and will probably not succeed in finishing by 2015.
Even with this difference each country suffers from similar problems. Each country is having their biggest problem with poverty in rural areas, and there is a focus to improve child malnutrition.
2008 primary education enrollment rate 99.8%
In 2009 Kazakhstan was included in the list of countries in the high human development index (HDI)
There has been significant improvement in Zambia, whereas in Kazakhstan the enrollment rate has mainly stayed the same over the last several years. In Kazakhstan girls in school has not necessarily been a concern, since almost all girls attend school already, rather in Zambia it a main point of focus for improvement in education.
Kazakhstan has done very well for this goal. But there is more that can be done.
Kazakhstan has joined over 60 international human rights treaties.
However, only 2 of the 19 ministers in government are women as of 2010.
Violence against women has been one of the major focuses for Kazakhstan. They are improving this by proving public outreach through crisis center, many of which are specifically for women.
There is room for improvement for both of these countries on this goal. As far as women in government go, Zambia actually has a higher percentage than Kazakhstan. Each country is trying to promote more government promotion of empowering women. Another similarity between these countries is violence against women, and Kazakhstan has crisis centers to help this issue, Zambia needs more intervention for domestic violence against women.
Child mortality has continued to be an issue in Kazakhstan.
To reach the criteria for the MDG 5 Kazakhstan must reduce its child mortality rate to 19.8 per 1000 by 2015
In 2006 they were at 31.8 per 1000
The major problem that has been identified is that the majority of deaths are from preventable diseases.
Therefor the is a government-backed push to improve perinatal care.
Even though each of these countries have extremely different child mortality rates, neither will most likely reach their goal by 2015. This is because these countries will not be able to cut their child mortality rates by 2/3. Both countries are emphasizing their focus on the perinatal care of after the child is born, and mainly having the infants receive proper nutrition.
Although that ha been improvement in this area, Kazakhstan’s indicators for maternal health are still quite low.
The Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) is several times as high as that found in the WHO European nations.
The MMR needs to reduced from 55 per 100,000 in 1990 to 14 by 2015 to achieve their goal.
To assist in the improvement of these issues there are laws being put into place to improve obstetric and reproductive health care.
For improving maternal health, Kazakhstan is focused on creating more access to obstetric and reproductive health care. Zambia on the other hand is much more focused on having access to skilled midwives during labor, and eradicating unsafe birthing habits. Zambia mainly loses women in the duration of labor since professional health care is less evident especially in rural areas.
As of January 1, 2012 there have been 13,784 cases of HIV infection registered in Kazakhstan.
Intravenous injection has been the dominant source but sexual encounters, as a cause of HIV, have steadily been rising.
In 2010 55.5% was caused by intravenous injection and 35.5% was caused by sexual encounters.
To ensure progress political commitment and youth awareness will be key.
In 2007-2009 there was a 16.7% drop in TB cases.
For Tuberculosis in Kazakhstan has been significantly reduced in the last 5 years, as compared to past years. Zambia mainly improved their TB rates through immunizations.
For HIV/AIDS in Kazakhstan the numbers have been increasing, and the attempts to decrease HIV/AIDS is focused on government promotion and youth awareness. In Zambia HIV/AIDS has been slowly decreasing, and their attempts have been through government promotion, and specifically in rural areas where the numbers are twice as high.
Although access to clean water has been improved for the country as a whole, there is still a problem with insufficient piped water to many rural areas of Kazakhstan such as Kostanai and Atyram.
Another major problem with environmental stability is the carbon dioxide emissions.
Factors that contribute to this problem include the use of physically or morally warn out equipment and ineffective technologies used in the energy sector.
In Kazakhstan the urban areas have improved access to clean drinking water, however, the rural areas don’t have access to centralized and piped clean drinking water. In Zambia, the access to clean water rates have increased dramatically and there is a possibility that they can make their goal of having clean drinking water for 75% of the country.
Kazakhstan has been achieving this development goal by creating international partnerships concentrated on trade, investments, finance, ICT, and regional and international cooperation.
An important part of this goal is improving the partnerships within the country as well. Public-private partnerships applied to infrastructure, energy and public utilities projects have led to the following improvements.
Private financing in areas important for the Government, risk-sharing, good governance, use of innovative and advanced technologies, and improved business climate and culture.
In Kazakhstan there have been an increasing number of international partnerships, however one of the primary goals is to improve public-private partnerships within the country itself. In Zambia they have significantly decreased their external public debt, but the main goal right now is to increase competitiveness, since their global rankings are low. They need to make international partnerships.
Millennium Development Goals in Kazakhstan: Written by many people working in cooperation between several organizations, “Kuik” Printing House