Millennium development goals slideshow
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Millennium Development goals slideshow. By Christi Taylor & Austin Thornhill. Millennium development goal # 1. Status on goal #1. Zambia. Kazakhstan. Goal was achieved in 2004 Poverty rate has gone from 46.7% in 2001 to 5.3% in 2011

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Millennium Development goals slideshow

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Millennium development goals slideshow

Millennium Development goals slideshow

By Christi Taylor & Austin Thornhill


Millennium development goal 1

Millennium development goal # 1


Status on goal 1

Status on goal #1

Zambia

Kazakhstan

Goal was achieved in 2004

Poverty rate has gone from 46.7% in 2001 to 5.3% in 2011

Target 1+ for the country is to now halve the number of people below the poverty line in Rural areas

With poverty no longer being a major factor of hunger, there was a focus to halve the malnutrition rate for children under five years of age. It has also been achieved.

  • The poverty rates based on the countries poverty line which is about $1.50 per day, decreased from an average of 58% in 1991, to 51% in 2006. For Zambia, any progression is good although it will most likely not make its goal of 29% by 2015. The yearly rate of change is too slow.

  • One of the main goals of focus for Zambia to decrease poverty is by focusing attention on the rural areas rather than the urban areas. In the rural areas alone, based on the country’s poverty line, is about 67% of people in poverty. In the city areas alone the poverty percentage is about 20%.

  • For nutrition, the percentage of underweight children decreased from 25.1% in 1992, to 14.6% in 2007. Although hunger is not eradicated, that is a significant drop in percentage. The remaining issue is stunting in children which is being addressed by educating pregnant women and children about nutrition and the importance of that 1,000 days after birth.


Comparison

Comparison

Although Kazakhstan has already accomplished its goal, Zambia is far from and will probably not succeed in finishing by 2015.

Even with this difference each country suffers from similar problems. Each country is having their biggest problem with poverty in rural areas, and there is a focus to improve child malnutrition.


Millennium development goal 2

Millennium development goal # 2


Status on goal 2

Status on goal #2

Zambia

Kazakhstan

2008 primary education enrollment rate 99.8%

In 2009 Kazakhstan was included in the list of countries in the high human development index (HDI)

  • Education in Zambia has seen major progression in the last years. The overall enrollment percentage of children for primary education (years 1-7) went from 80% in 1990 to 101.4% in 2009. This problem was addressed by taking away primary education fees in 2002 and an increased construction of schools.

  • The challenge that the country faces right now, is the completion rate of girls in secondary schools, which would be like middle school in the United States. In Zambia only Primary school is free, and the rest costs afterward. 17.4% of girls actually finish Secondary school.

  • The other issue is people (especially women) getting jobs after school, a lot of people just work as their place in the villages after school and do not put their education to work.


Comparison1

Comparison

There has been significant improvement in Zambia, whereas in Kazakhstan the enrollment rate has mainly stayed the same over the last several years. In Kazakhstan girls in school has not necessarily been a concern, since almost all girls attend school already, rather in Zambia it a main point of focus for improvement in education.


Millennium development goal 3

Millennium development goal # 3


Status on goal 3

Status on goal #3

Zambia

Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan has done very well for this goal. But there is more that can be done.

Kazakhstan has joined over 60 international human rights treaties.

However, only 2 of the 19 ministers in government are women as of 2010.

Violence against women has been one of the major focuses for Kazakhstan. They are improving this by proving public outreach through crisis center, many of which are specifically for women.

  • Following the previous issue of women completing education after Primary school, the incentive of effort to empower women is there, but as far as I am concerned no plan has been set in place to encourage women to further their education.

  • Zambia does have a goal of women representation in parliament, with the current 14.1%, the goal for 2015 is 30% which will most likely not make that goal. The main cause of this problem is because of laws allowing women to marry at a very young age, because of this violence against women increases as well as HIV/AIDS.


Comparison2

Comparison

There is room for improvement for both of these countries on this goal. As far as women in government go, Zambia actually has a higher percentage than Kazakhstan. Each country is trying to promote more government promotion of empowering women. Another similarity between these countries is violence against women, and Kazakhstan has crisis centers to help this issue, Zambia needs more intervention for domestic violence against women.


Millennium development goal 4

Millennium development goal # 4


Status on goal 4

Status on goal #4

Zambia

Kazakhstan

Child mortality has continued to be an issue in Kazakhstan.

To reach the criteria for the MDG 5 Kazakhstan must reduce its child mortality rate to 19.8 per 1000 by 2015

In 2006 they were at 31.8 per 1000

The major problem that has been identified is that the majority of deaths are from preventable diseases.

Therefor the is a government-backed push to improve perinatal care.

  • The number of birth deaths has decreased from approximately 191 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1992 to about 119 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2007. The goal for 2015 is 64, which will most likely not make that goal. There is a good decrease though.

  • There is an increased effort of skilled birth attendees during labor and educating mothers on nutrition and such. Other necessary efforts include child immunizations, and healthy nursing habits.


Comparison3

Comparison

Even though each of these countries have extremely different child mortality rates, neither will most likely reach their goal by 2015. This is because these countries will not be able to cut their child mortality rates by 2/3. Both countries are emphasizing their focus on the perinatal care of after the child is born, and mainly having the infants receive proper nutrition.


Millennium development goal 5

Millennium development goal # 5


Status on goal 5

Status on goal #5

Zambia

Kazakhstan

Although that ha been improvement in this area, Kazakhstan’s indicators for maternal health are still quite low.

The Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) is several times as high as that found in the WHO European nations.

The MMR needs to reduced from 55 per 100,000 in 1990 to 14 by 2015 to achieve their goal.

To assist in the improvement of these issues there are laws being put into place to improve obstetric and reproductive health care.

  • The current number of women dying due to complications during pregnancy, which decreased from 649 deaths per 100,000 live births in 1996 to about 591 in 2007. The goal is 162 in 2015, which most likely will not be met.

  • Like the previous goal, the goal is to have trained midwives at work during labor, which would monitor rural labor health and stop unsafe birthing habits.


Comparison4

Comparison

For improving maternal health, Kazakhstan is focused on creating more access to obstetric and reproductive health care. Zambia on the other hand is much more focused on having access to skilled midwives during labor, and eradicating unsafe birthing habits. Zambia mainly loses women in the duration of labor since professional health care is less evident especially in rural areas.


Millennium development goal 6

Millennium development goal # 6


Status on goal 6

Status on goal #6

Zambia

Kazakhstan

As of January 1, 2012 there have been 13,784 cases of HIV infection registered in Kazakhstan.

Intravenous injection has been the dominant source but sexual encounters, as a cause of HIV, have steadily been rising.

In 2010 55.5% was caused by intravenous injection and 35.5% was caused by sexual encounters.

To ensure progress political commitment and youth awareness will be key.

In 2007-2009 there was a 16.7% drop in TB cases.

  • The national HIV rate among adults (15-49) declined from 15.6% in 2001 to 14.3% in 2009. The goal so far has been reached of below 16% and the number keeps declining, but women still have a higher rate than men. Also further focus on the rural areas, because their rates are twice as high as the urban areas.

  • Tuberculosis has also declined from 545 per 100,000 people in 2003 to 425 people in 2009.


Comparison5

Comparison

For Tuberculosis in Kazakhstan has been significantly reduced in the last 5 years, as compared to past years. Zambia mainly improved their TB rates through immunizations.

For HIV/AIDS in Kazakhstan the numbers have been increasing, and the attempts to decrease HIV/AIDS is focused on government promotion and youth awareness. In Zambia HIV/AIDS has been slowly decreasing, and their attempts have been through government promotion, and specifically in rural areas where the numbers are twice as high.


Millennium development goal 7

Millennium development goal # 7


Status on goal 7

Status on goal #7

Zambia

Kazakhstan

Although access to clean water has been improved for the country as a whole, there is still a problem with insufficient piped water to many rural areas of Kazakhstan such as Kostanai and Atyram.

Another major problem with environmental stability is the carbon dioxide emissions.

Factors that contribute to this problem include the use of physically or morally warn out equipment and ineffective technologies used in the energy sector.

  • The percentage of people with access to safe drinking water increased from 47% in 1996 to about 60% in 2006, the goal is about 75% in 2015, which could be met, we hope it will!

  • The main problem is conserving the flora and fauna and forested area within Zambia, which the forested area is slightly declining.


Comparison6

Comparison

In Kazakhstan the urban areas have improved access to clean drinking water, however, the rural areas don’t have access to centralized and piped clean drinking water. In Zambia, the access to clean water rates have increased dramatically and there is a possibility that they can make their goal of having clean drinking water for 75% of the country.


Millennium development goal 8

Millennium development goal # 8


Status on goal 8

Status on goal #8

Zambia

Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan has been achieving this development goal by creating international partnerships concentrated on trade, investments, finance, ICT, and regional and international cooperation.

An important part of this goal is improving the partnerships within the country as well. Public-private partnerships applied to infrastructure, energy and public utilities projects have led to the following improvements.

Private financing in areas important for the Government, risk-sharing, good governance, use of innovative and advanced technologies, and improved business climate and culture.

  • The external public debt of Zambia decreased from $6,005 million in 1999 to $934 million in 2006. Which is a very big drop and is very beneficial to the country.

  • The main concern right now is international competitiveness because Zambia currently ranks 115 out of 139 countries for GDP.


Comparison7

Comparison

In Kazakhstan there have been an increasing number of international partnerships, however one of the primary goals is to improve public-private partnerships within the country itself. In Zambia they have significantly decreased their external public debt, but the main goal right now is to increase competitiveness, since their global rankings are low. They need to make international partnerships.


Sources

Sources

Zambia

Kazakhstan

Millennium Development Goals in Kazakhstan: Written by many people working in cooperation between several organizations, “Kuik” Printing House

  • Millenium Development Goals-Report for Zambia. UNDP, 14 May 2013. google. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. <http://www.undp.org/content/zambia/en/home/library/mdg/zambia-mdgs-progress-report-2013/>.


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