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Lead Poisoning. James R. Ginder, MS, WEMT,PI, CHES Health Education Specialist Paula Mandel, RN, BSN Public Health Nurse Hamilton County Health Department 317-776-8500 www.co.hamilton.in.is. After the presentation you will be able to…. recall what lead is

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Lead poisoning

Lead Poisoning

James R. Ginder, MS, WEMT,PI, CHES

Health Education Specialist

Paula Mandel, RN, BSN

Public Health Nurse

Hamilton County Health Department

317-776-8500

www.co.hamilton.in.is


After the presentation you will be able to
After the presentation you will be able to…

  • recall what lead is

  • list three products that may contain lead

  • explain two ways children would become poisoned with lead

  • identify three signs and symptoms of lead poisoning


Exposed children
Exposed Children

  • It is estimated that 14,000 Hoosier children under the age of 7 are lead poisoned

  • In 2005 only 8% of ALL children were tested for blood levels. Of these children 1.27% had confirmed elevated blood lead levels (10mg/dl)

Source: ISDH


What is lead
What Is Lead…

  • A bluish white lustrous metal found naturally in the environment

  • Used in consumer products and manufacturing

  • Lead can be found in…

    ● Lead based paint

    ● Contaminated soil

    ● Household dust

    ● Lead-glazed pottery

    ● Inexpensive metal jewelry

Source: www.webmineral.com


Who is at risk for lead poisoning
Who Is At Risk For Lead Poisoning…

  • Children absorb lead more readily

  • All children are susceptible despite

    ● Urban or rural residency

    ● Race or ethnicity

    ● Income level

  • Children who are from:

    ● Members of minorities

    ● Recent refugees

    ● Medicaid recipients

    ● Living near or below the poverty level


Exposure to lead
Exposure To Lead…

  • Eating (Ingestion)

    ● Lead particles & dust on hands transferred to food, drinks and children sucking on their finders

    ● 20% absorbed in adults (US Department of Health and Human Service)

    ● 70% absorbed in children and pregnant women (US Department of Health and Human Service)

    ●Breathing (Inhalation)

    ● Lead particles in the air


Signs and symptoms
Signs and Symptoms…

●Tiredness ● Wrist or foot drop

● Sleep problems ● Weakness

● Dizziness ● Clumsiness

● Irritability ● Joint and muscle pain

● Nervousness ● Vomiting

● Headaches ● Loss of Appetite

● Difficulty concentrating ● Stomach aches

● Depression ● Constipation

● Forgetfulness ● Metal taste in mouth

● Hyperactivity ● Numbness

At Low LevelsNO observable signs and symptoms


Body systems that lead effects
Body Systems That Lead Effects…

  • Brain and Nervous System

  • Reproductive System

  • Renal System (Kidneys)

  • Circulatory System (Heart, Blood)

  • Skeletal system (Bones and Joints)

  • Muscular System


Other effects
Other Effects…

  • Learning Disabilities

  • Speech and Language Problems

  • Behavior Problems

  • Hearing Damage

  • Pregnancy complication

  • Concentration Problems


Lead and the nervous system
Lead And The Nervous System…

  • Most affect by lead

  • Damage can be permanent

  • Lead can damage the brain and destroy brain cells

  • Damage can result in depression, irritability, forgetfulness, clumsiness, learning problems

  • High exposures can result in hallucinations, coma and even death


Effects of lead on the blood
Effects of Lead On the Blood…

  • Lead damages red blood cells

  • Prevents cells from carrying oxygen

  • Lowers hemoglobin (carried oxygen)


Effects of lead on bone tissue
Effects Of Lead On Bone Tissue…

  • Lead from blood is deposited in bones

  • Prevents calcium release into blood

  • Blocks production of new blood cells

  • Bones and teeth store 95% of lead in the body

  • Lead is stored in bone tissue for over 30 years

  • Under stress, lead is released from bone tissue


Effects of lead on male reproductive system
Effects Of Lead On Male Reproductive System…

  • Decreases libido

  • Infertility

  • Damage to sperm

  • Increase spouse’s chance of miscarrying, premature birth and birth defects in children


Effects of lead on female reproductive system
Effects Of Lead On Female Reproductive System…

  • Reduces fertility

  • Affects menstruation and menopause

  • Lead passes through placenta to fetus

  • May cause brain damage to fetus

  • May cause miscarriage or premature birth

  • May be released from bones back to blood


Some known sources
Some Known Sources…

  • Lead-based paint and dust from lead based-paint

  • Lead contaminated drinking water

  • Imported cosmetics

  • Vinyl and plastics

  • Jewelry

  • Pewter

  • Fishing weights, ammunition, etc


Other known sources
Other Known Sources…

  • Lead contaminated soil

  • Occupational sources:

    ● Remodeling construction

    ● Smelters

    ● Battery factories

    ● Hobbies

  • Folk and ethnic remedies (Alarzon & Greta)

  • Food and food containers (tamarind candy, pottery, crystal glassware)


Toys…

  • Some toys may have lead paint or other parts that have lead in them

  • To see a list of recalled toys visit: Mattel Toys www.mattel.com/safety/us/

    Or

    U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission

    www.cpsc.gov


Jewelry
Jewelry…

  • Jewelry may contain lead or paint used in the product may contain lead


Lead in homes
Lead In Homes…

  • Lead paint in homes built before 1978 place children at risk for lead poisoning

  • The older the home the higher the risk for lead hazards

  • Of the children poisoned, 80% of the exposed came from housing

  • 90% of the pre-1950 housing where the poisoned children lived had lead based paint hazards

  • CDC recommends having children tested for lead at 6 months and then yearly if your home contains lead paint of if you are exposed to lead at work or use lead in a hobby


Where in the home is lead
Where In The Home Is Lead…

  • Window sills and doors

  • Surface with chipped, peeling or deteriorating paint

  • Porches, rail fence

  • Bare soil around perimeter of house or play area

  • Floors where dust can settle


At risk criteria
At Risk Criteria…

Children 6 Years Of Age And Younger:

  • Exposed to or living in a house or childcare center built before 1978

  • With siblings or playmates who have lead poisoned

  • Frequently in contact with people exposed to lead thought work or hobbies

  • Who are recent immigrants

  • In low-income families

  • Enrolled in Hoosier Health Wise

  • Who are members of minorities particularly African Americans

  • Using folk or ethic remedies

  • Exposed to renovation and remodeling activities


Testing for lead
Testing For Lead…

  • A Blood test is used to check for lead exposure:

    ● Blood from a vein (Doctors office)

    ● Finger stick (Hamilton County Health Department)

  • Results > 10ug/dL require a confirmatory test:

    ● Must be sent to physician for a blood draw

  • Medical and case management is required

  • Retesting required if lead poisoning confirmed


Blood test results
Blood Test Results…

Normal Range 0-9 ug/dL


Treatment
Treatment…

  • Remove the lead source

  • If the lead source can not be removed, seal the lead product rather than remove it

  • Chelation Therapy:

    ●Medication that binds with lead

    so lead is excreted in the

    urine


Other treatments
Other Treatments…

  • Nutrition Therapy:

    ● Diets high in iron and calcium

    ● Examples of foods high in iron are:

    *Cheese, fish, meat, eggs, beans,

    spinach, raisins

    ● Examples of foods high in calcium are:

    * Milk, cheese, ice cream, yogurt,

    bread, fish, meat, broccoli, fruit,

    nuts


Free lead testing
FREE Lead Testing…

By Appointment

Hamilton County Health Department

317-776-8500

www.co.hamilton.in.us


More information
More Information…

  • Centers For Disease Control

    www.cdc.gov

  • Consumer Product Safety Commission

    www.cpsc.gov

  • EPA

    www.epa.gov

  • Indiana State Department of Health

    www.in.gov/isdh


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