Introduction. A skill tells you the purpose of the movement, E.g. “passing”. A technique is the way of performing a skill, E.g. push pass, hit or reverse pass. The technique tells you “how” a pass was made. In your jotter write down a skill from the following activities and
A skill tells you the purpose of the movement, E.g. “passing”.
A technique is the way of performing a skill, E.g. push pass, hit or
reverse pass. The technique tells you “how” a pass was made.
In your jotter write down a skill from the following activities and
three different techniques. Explain why you would use each different
One of these skills is easier to perform.
A back flip is more difficult (complex)
than balancing on one leg (easy).
In all activities you will find easy and
In your jotter write down 5 different activities and give an example of a complex and
easy skill from each activity.
Easy SkillsComplex Skills
Few judgements to be made Many judgements
Little co-ordination needed Co-ordination vital
Simple movements Complicated movements
Easy environment (no opposition) Difficult environment
Decision making and coordination are essential to complex skills.
In your jotter write down an individual activity, a skill or technique from that activity
and explain the importance of coordination in the chosen skill/technique.
An example has been given for you.
Activity – Gymnastics Skill/Technique – Cartwheel
During the cartwheel the arms and legs must be perfectly
coordinated to achieve the correct timing of hands touching
the ground then legs within the skill.
In your jotter write down a team activity, a skill or technique from that activity and
Explain the importance of decision making in the chosen skill/technique.
Activity – Hockey Skill/Technique – Reverse Pass
When using the reverse pass the player has very little time to decide when and who
to pass to. Making decisions quickly is a trait of skilful players.
A performance of a skill can be broken down into 3 parts. Preparation, Action
and Recovery. E.g,
Preparation – Toss the ball into the air, and pull the racket
Action – Lift up and throw the face of the racket to
make contact with the ball. (Throwing
Recovery - Follow through in the direction you wish the
ball to travel
In your jotter select 4 different activities and a skill/technique from each. Describe
in detail the preparation, action and recovery for each one.
Gradual Build Up is a way of learning a skill progressively – “bit by bit”. Each part
of the skill is introduced and mastered before another new part of the skill is
Gradual Build Up is used to learn new skills which might be dangerous or too
Complex for a beginner. E.g.
Begin by attempting sitting dives from pool side.
Crouched dives from pool side.
Standing dives from pool side.
As technique improves divers may continue to increase
In your jotter write down 2 more skills which you may learn using gradual build up,
for each skill write down at least 3 stages of learning.
Learning or developing skills using the whole-part-whole method involves
practising the whole skill and then practice a part of it before putting it back into
the whole skill again.
Whole-part-whole is used to isolate and practice parts of a skill which are proving
difficult to master, by breaking down the skill into parts it can make it easier
Activity – Swimming Skill/Technique – Backstroke
Practise the whole stroke
Using a float practise “legs only”
Swim the full stoke again, noting any improvement
In your jotter write down an activity and a skill/technique. Describe the part of the
skill which you found difficult to master. Explain how this affected the whole skill.
Describe a practice you used to improve the problem part.
Skills can be learned and practised using pressure dills, conditioned games, small
sided games and co-operative practice.
Pressure can break skills down in a game situation. Practising under pressure will
benefit overall performance.
In your jotter select an activity, skill and describe a pressure drill used to practise the
skill. You may use a diagram to explain.
Placing conditions on performers during practise can help to improve skills in the
overall game. E.g. During a passing practise in Football players are only allowed
In your jotter write down another example of a conditioned practise/game. Explain
how this will effect the overall performance.
In your jotter describe a practice where you co-operated with others. Explain how
this practice helped your overall performance.
In your jotter give 3 reasons why small sided games are used to practice skills.
Many practises allow performers to work on skills and an aspect of fitness together.
A gymnast who spends 30 minutes practising the splits, is
simultaneously working on their suppleness.
In your jotter write down another example using a
different activity, skill and aspect of fitness. Give one
reason why people practice skills and an aspect of fitness
Feedback is information you receive on your performance. There are 2 main types
of feedback INTERNAL and EXTERNAL.
Internal feedback is sometimes called “kinaesthetic”. The feedback comes
from within the performer, this type lets the performer “feel” the movements.
In your jotter chose an activity and a skill/technique where you received internal
feedback. How did the feedback effect the rest of the performance.
External feedback is feedback given from another. There are 3 main types:
In your jotter describe 3 occasions where you have received the above feedback.
Feedback can be useful when learning new skills/techniques. Feedback should be
given directly after the performer completes the skill/technique.
In your jotter explain why.
When giving feedback it is important that the right amount is given to the performer. Too much feedback is as unhelpful as too little.
In your jotter explain why.
Demonstrations can be given by the teacher, class mate or a video. They allow you
to see the skill before you attempt it.
Golf players will practise the same shot many times trying to
make the shot automatic.
Once a skill is automatic the benefits are that:
The performer does not need to think about what needs to be
done to execute the skill.
The success rate will be high.
The performer can concentrate on other things. E.g. the next
In your jotter write down 2 problems which a performer might face when practising
a skill for too long.
In your jotter write down 2 ways which this can be avoided.
The centre of gravity for a human is located around the area of the naval. In many activities performers need to be maintain a static centre of gravity to remain stable.
E.g. Activity – Gymnastics Skill - Handstand
In your jotter write down 3 different activities and a skill from
each where the performer must maintain a static centre of
In other activities the centre of gravity is dynamic (always
E.g. Activity – Ice Skating Skill - Jumps
In your jotter write down 3 different activities and a skill
From each where the performer must have a dynamic centre
Performers can make themselves more stable in 5 ways.
Explain why stability is needed in each of the following activities.
The more you lean into
an oncoming force the
more stable you will be.
The lower your centre of
gravity the more stable you will be.
The heavier you are the more stable you are.
The closer your COG is to the
centre of your
base the more
stable you will
The larger the
area of your base
the more stable
you will be
Many activities involve a transfer of weight from the back foot to the front. A
transfer of weight in this direction adds more force, speed and distance into the
movement. A long backward motion and follow through increases this.
Basketball players will transfer weight from their back foot to
the front when they chest pass. This transfer of weight adds
speed to the pass.
In your jotter select any activity and passing as the skill, you
may use Basketball. Explain in detail why fast passing may
be required in a game.
The striking and fielding games require a transfer of
weight from the back to front foot.
In your jotter, in detail explain why.
In your jotter, describe in detail the transfer of weight which occurs during this performance.
During a vault weight
is transferred from the
feet to the hands and
then back to the feet.
In your jotter write
down another activity
and skill which has a
similar transfer of
In your jotter select a skill/technique from this
activity. Describe how improving the weight
transfer would improve the performance.
Many activities require long or short levers. One example of a long lever is
and one example of a short lever is
Long levers are used to gain speed and distance.
the longer the lever the greater the distance and
speed of the lever at the end.
Short levers are easier to
control, and can be used to
teach skills to beginners.
Longer levers are more difficult to control.
In your jotter write down 2 examples of a long lever and 2 examples of a short lever.
Select one example from each and describe how the lever was used for effective
Parts of the human body can be used to act as long levers. E.g.
During a game of volleyball to serve and spike the arm can
be used as a lever. Straightening the arm to make a long
lever adds distance and speed. When the ball is played with
speed it is difficult to return, players use this skill to try and
win points and the game.
In your jotter select another example of a skill when a part
of the body is used to make a long lever.
Describe how you used this lever when performing the skill.
Describe the actions you took to maintain control when using the long lever.
In many activities friction can be an advantage, E.g.
A footballer will wear studs to increase the friction between his boots
and the ground, this will allow him to apply maximum force when turning
In your jotter write down 2 more examples of friction helping performance.
In many activities friction can be a disadvantage, E.g.
A speed skater will ensure that the blades of their skates
are as smooth and sharp as possible. Friction occurring
between ice and skate will slow the competitor down.
In your jotter write down 2 more examples where friction could be a disadvantage.
Resistance is a force that slows down or opposes another force. Both air and water
create resistance for athletes and competitors.
In your jotter select an activity where water is a resistance and why.
In your jotter select an activity where wind/air is a resistance and why.
Competitors try to gain vital second in races by reducing air and water resistance.
One way to do this is by changing body shape. A STREAMLINED body shape
will encounter less resistance and therefore travel faster.
In you jotter
explain how a
cyclist can make
their body shape
In your jotter
explain how a
swimmer can make their body shape more streamlined.
Changing shape during a rotation will alter the
speed of the skill.
In your jotter write down how this skill could be performed faster.
As well as changing shape to reduce DRAG and
resistance, competitors will use other means to cut
down air and water resistance. E.g The Helmet.
In your jotter write down 2 different pieces of
Equipment/clothing used by competitors to reduce
In many activities you use force to overcome resistance.
the sprinter uses the staring blocks to push back against
and travel forwards. If the blocks slipped the sprinter
could not apply the same force .
In your jotter write down the activities below, the direction of the force and the
direction of the movement.
In your jotter explain how resistance can be an advantage in an activity by allowing
a performer to create a force.
Force is used to overcome resistance. A
swimmer uses the force from their arms
legs to overcome the resistance of the water.
In your jotter write down another example of a competitor who uses force to
overcome a resistance.