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Estates and interests. Debbie Rook LL.B open learning. The doctrine of estates. Refers to the PERIOD OF TIME during which the rights of the land will last e.g freehold = forever. 28 Hill Road: I own the freehold estate. You own the leasehold estate.

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estates and interests

Estates and interests

Debbie Rook

LL.B open learning

the doctrine of estates
The doctrine of estates
  • Refers to the PERIOD OF TIME during which the rights of the land will last
  • e.g freehold = forever
more than one estate can exist in one piece of land at a time
28 Hill Road:

I own the freehold estate.

You own the leasehold estate.

More than one estate can exist in one piece of land at a time

FEE SIMPLE

ABSOLUTE

IN

POSSESSION

5 yrs

legal estates s 1 1 lpa 1925
Legal estates - s.1(1) LPA 1925
  • FEE SIMPLE ABSOLUTE IN POSSESSION
  • Perpetual grant
  • Not conditional
  • A right to immediate enjoyment
legal estates s 1 1 lpa 19251
Legal estates - s.1(1) LPA 1925
  • TERM OF YEARS ABSOLUTE
  • A fixed term
  • Can be less than a year
  • Can be a future interest
lace v chantler 1944
Lace v. Chantler [1944]
  • A landlord purported to grant a lease “for the duration of the war”.
  • Held: this was an uncertain period of time and therefore NO leasehold estate was created.
5 legal interests s 1 2 lpa
5 legal interests – s.1(2) LPA
  • (a) An easementfor an interest equivalent to an estate in fee simple absolute in possession or a term of years absolute
  • (c) A charge by way of legal mortgage
  • (b) A rentcharge – subject to certain conditions
  • (d) “…and other similar charge”
  • (e) Rights of entry exercisable over a legal term of years absolute
equitable interests s 1 3 lpa
Equitable interests – s.1(3) LPA
  • A process of elimination – 2 legal estates and 5 legal interests and everything else is equitable (s.1(3) LPA 1925).
examples of equitable interests
Examples of equitable interests

Common examples

  • Interest of a beneficiary under a trust
  • Restrictive covenants in freehold land
  • Equitable easements
  • Estate contracts
a trust of land
A trust of land
  • A trust is the means by which property may be held by one person (a trustee) for the benefit of another (a beneficiary).
what is an estate contract
What is an estate contract?
  • It is a contract to create or transfer a legal estate
  • It must comply with s.2 Law of Property (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1989
  • It is always an equitable interest
when do you need a deed
When do you need a deed?
  • S.52 LPA 1925
  • To CREATE or TRANSFER a LEGAL ESTATE or a LEGAL INTEREST in land
what is a deed s 1 lp mp act 1989
What is a deed? – s.1 LP(MP) Act 1989
  • 1. Must be clear on face of document that it is a deed
  • “This Deed of transfer …”
  • 2. Must be validly executed:
  • signed
  • witnessed
  • delivered
exception
EXCEPTION
  • S.54(2) LPA 1925
  • A SHORT LEASE (not exceeding 3 years)
  • in possession
  • at the best rent
  • without the payment of a fine (premium)
  • Applies to creation but not assignment
summary
Summary
  • s.1(1) LPA – 2 legal estates
  • s.1(2) LPA – 5 legal interests
  • s.1(3) LPA – anything else is equitable
  • s.52 LPA – need a deed for a legal estate/interest
  • s.54(2) LPA – an exception to the need for a deed (the short lease)
when is a right legal
WHEN IS A RIGHT LEGAL?

MUST USE THE

CORRECT

DOCUMENT

(A DEED)

MUST BE LISTED

in s.1(1) or s.1(2)

LPA 1925

+

what rights can be equitable
WHAT RIGHTS CAN BE EQUITABLE?

THOSE THAT

ARE IN s.1

BUT WHICH

AREN’T

MADE BY DEED

THOSE NOT

IN S.1 LPA 25

interests in land
Ali owns the freehold

of Greenacre

… over which she gives

- Neighbour Caron - a

right of way over the garden

Neighbour Dillon - a promise that Greenacre will never be used for business purposes

North Bank plc which had lent money to Ali – a mortgage

Bren a 5 year lease.

INTERESTS in land
multiple rights in land
Estates

Ali owns the freehold

Bren owns a leasehold

Interests

Caron has an easement

Dillon has a restrictive covenant

The Bank has a mortgage

Multiple rights in land
what happens if ali sells greenacre to ed
What happens if Ali sells Greenacre to Ed?

The big question = is Ed bound by the following:

  • lease
  • easement
  • restrictive covenant
  • mortgage?
the issues this raises
The issues this raises
  • The need to protect estates/interests against new owners of the land
  • The need to protect new owners against existing estates/interests
  • The need to establish priority between competing interests e.g. two mortgages
the issue of priority
The issue of priority
  • The way in which the law determines which of several competing proprietary rights in the same land should have priority over the others
summary1
SUMMARY
  • There are 2 main types of rights in land: estates and interests
  • There can be a number of different rights in the same piece of land – more than one estate and more than one interest
  • The only rights that concern land lawyers are proprietary ones – ones that are CAPABLE of enforcement against a new owner
  • The Issue of Priority is of fundamental importance in land law – does a proprietary right bind a new owner of the land?
two regimes
Two regimes
  • Unregistered land

…. eventually to be replaced by

  • Registered land
  • Registered land means that the estate in the land has been registered at HM Land Registry.
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