Astronomy 350 cosmology
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Astronomy 350 Cosmology. Professor Lynn Cominsky Department of Physics and Astronomy Offices: Darwin 329A and NASA EPO (707) 664-2655 Best way to reach me: [email protected] Group 7. Keith Buckley Emily Haney Brooke Krystosek Alex McMahon. Give it up for Group 7!.

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Astronomy 350 Cosmology

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Astronomy 350 cosmology

Astronomy 350Cosmology

Professor Lynn Cominsky

Department of Physics and Astronomy

Offices: Darwin 329A and NASA EPO

(707) 664-2655

Best way to reach me: [email protected]

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Group 7

Group 7

  • Keith Buckley

  • Emily Haney

  • Brooke Krystosek

  • Alex McMahon

Give it up for Group 7!

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Shapes of galaxies

Shapes of Galaxies

  • Spirals

    • disk shaped with spiral arms

    • often have bright bulges in center

    • contain interstellar gas, nebulae, star forming regions, open clusters and globular clusters

  • Barred Spirals

    • spiral arms emerge from end of bar

    • gas from outer part of galaxy funneled to center through the bar, forming new stars in bulge

  • Lenticular (“lens-shaped”)

    • flattened disks of gas and dust

    • no spiral arms

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Shapes of galaxies1

Shapes of Galaxies

  • Ellipticals

    • range from spherical to foot-ball shapes

    • lots of old stars and globular clusters

    • star formation is over or just restarting

    • maybe the result of collision and merger of smaller galaxies

  • Irregulars

    • lots of gas and new stars forming

    • rather small compared to spirals and ellipticals

  • Low surface Brightness

    • lots of gas, but few stars

    • can be rather large

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Galaxy formation movie

Galaxy Formation movie

  • Formation of galaxies in cold dark matter universe

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


M31 andromeda

M31/Andromeda

Center of M31 has two optical nuclei

  • Our nearest spiral neighbor

  • 2 million light years away

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


M31 chandra x ray

M31/Chandra X-ray

Center of M31

  • Image of central part of our neighbor M31

  • Bright X-ray sources are binaries with black holes or neutron stars

  • Central BH is very cool, 30 million Mo

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Edge on spiral galaxy

Edge-on Spiral Galaxy

  • NGC 891 - we think our Galaxy looks like this

This is an infrared composite image from KPNO

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Starburst galaxies

Starburst galaxies

  • Galaxies which are undergoing rapid phase of star formation

  • Supernova rate about 10 times higher

  • Many bright stars

  • Fluorescent gas clouds

NGC 4214

HST

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Starburst galaxy m82

Starburst Galaxy M82

  • Radio map is CO which traces H

  • IR map shows proto-stars

IR

Radio

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Starburst galaxy m821

Starburst galaxy M82

  • X-ray evidence for intermediate mass black hole in M82

  • High supernova rate makes many smaller black holes, which may merge

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Hubble galaxy sequence

Hubble Galaxy Sequence

  • Ellipticals (round through oval)

  • Spirals (centrally condensed with arms)

  • Barred Spirals (distinct bar shape with bulge)

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Spiral galaxies

Spiral Galaxies

NGC 1232/VLT

NGC 1288

Bulges formed over a short period very early in the young universe, perhaps through the collapse of a single cloud of hydrogen or merger of primeval star clusters.

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Spiral sequence

Spiral sequence

  • Hubble Space Telescope

  • Sandage

NGC 5838/S0

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Spiral sequence1

Spiral sequence

  • Hubble Space Telescope

  • Sandage

NGC 5689/Sa

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Spiral sequence2

Spiral sequence

  • Hubble Space Telescope

  • Sandage

NGC 5965/Sb

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Spiral sequence3

Spiral sequence

  • Hubble Space Telescope

  • Sandage

NGC 7537/Sbc

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Barred spiral m61

Barred Spiral M61

  • Bar across central region is made of stars, gas, and dust

  • Small bulge is dominated by a disk of material

  • Spiral arms begin at both ends of the bar

  • The bar is funneling material into the hub, which triggers star formation and feeds the bulge

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Barred spiral ngc1365

Barred Spiral NGC1365

IR/HST NICMOS

Optical/HST WFPC2

Optical/Sandage

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Irregular galaxies

Irregular Galaxies

NGC 4753/I0

Sextans A

5000 light years across

5 million light years away

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Galaxy formation

Galaxy formation

  • Large galaxy and satellite galaxy form

  • 200 kpc portion of larger simulation at NCSA

Full simulation followed 262,144 gas particles and 262,144 dark matter particles (not shown) within a 16 Mpc comoving region. It took 140 hours on a Cray YMP.

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Galaxy evolution

Galaxy Evolution

  • A computer simulation of a flat disk-type galaxy colliding with a dwarf galaxy. The dwarf galaxy cannot be seen, but its gravitational influences trigger the production of spiral arms in the gas-rich disk.

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Active galaxies

Active Galaxies

  • Quasars

    • Quasi-stellar radio source. (A radio source that is so far away that it looks like a star.)

    • Bright nucleus

    • Highly variable

    • Most produce strong X-rays

    • Many have broad spectral lines (104 km/sec)

    • Many QSOs (quasi-stellar objects, with no radio emission) are often called quasars

  • Seyfert galaxies

    • Spiral galaxies with bright nucleus

    • Seyfert 2 galaxies are viewed through gas disk

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Active galaxies1

Active Galaxies

  • Radio galaxies

    • quasars with radio emission (original quasars)

    • some have two lobes, connected by jets

    • some are wildly variable and have X-rays

    • not especially bright in visible light

    • often giant elliptical galaxies

  • BL Lac objects

    • narrow lines

    • highly polarized radio sources

  • Blazars

    • wildly variable, have X-rays and gamma-rays

    • quasars viewed down the jet axis

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Unified model of agn

Unified Model of AGN

  • All AGN are the same: central BH plus disk and jets

  • Differences in lines, jets, & spectra are due to different viewing angles

  • Also possible that BHs are being fed at different rates

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Seyfert galaxy ngc 7742

Seyfert Galaxy NGC 7742

HST

  • Bright nucleus

  • 3000 light years across

  • 72 million light years away

Looks like a fried egg!

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Centaurus a optical

Centaurus A/Optical

  • Giant elliptical galaxy

  • 10 million light years away

  • Dark dust lane obscures the central region

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Centaurus a radio

Centaurus A/Radio

  • Double Lobe Radio Galaxy

  • Image shows radio lobes superposed on optical image

  • Central black hole must be producing radio jets and lobes

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Centaurus a x ray

Centaurus A/X-ray

  • X-ray image from Chandra

  • Bright nucleus can be seen in center at location of black hole

  • Small jet to lower right ends in shocked region

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Centaurus a ir

Centaurus A/IR

Symbiotic relationship

  • IR map shows a second galaxy (barred spiral) hiding inside Cen A’s dust lanes

  • Elliptical’s gravity helps barred spiral maintain its shape

  • Material funneled along the spiral's bar fuels the central black hole which powers the elliptical's radio lobes

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


M87 optical

M87 Optical

  • Giant elliptical galaxy

  • At center of Virgo cluster

  • Many globular clusters surround it

  • Little dust and gas in the galaxy

  • 50 million light years away

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


M87 hst movie

M87 HST Movie

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


M87 optical jet

M87 Optical Jet

  • HST IR and UV composite

  • Globular clusters also seen

  • Note shock waves and knot patterns in jet

  • Bright point at central black hole

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


M87 radio jet

M87 Radio Jet

  • Central black hole is making jets

  • Jets are making bubbles of hot gas

  • Bubbles are as big as 200,000 light years

  • Smallest resolution VLBI image is 0.2 light years

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


M87 x ray and radio

M87 X-ray and radio

  • X-ray contours on radio image

  • High energy emission from central black hole

  • ROSAT X-ray data

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


X ray quiet agn

X-ray Quiet AGN

  • Luminous optical nucleus yet X-ray quiet

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


M87 x ray quiet agn

M87 - X-ray Quiet AGN?

  • Elliptical galaxies with known supermassive black holes from optical data

  • Advective accretion means that matter flows over the event horizon without making many X-rays due to the lack of a hot accretion disk

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Gamma ray quasars

Gamma-ray Quasars

3C273

3C279

  • 3C 279 is a very bright, repeatedly flaring gamma-ray source, seen at MeV - TeV energies

3C273 is much brighter at optical energies

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Blazar movie

Blazar movie

  • Shows rotating black hole in the center of Active Galaxy, which is emitting relativistic jets of material

  • Blazar is a quasar that is aiming its beams directly at us

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Most distant qsos

Most distant QSOs

Z = 5.0

Z = 4.9

Z = 4.75

  • Redshift record is now around Z=6.5

  • Sloan Digital Sky Survey

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Collisions and mergers

Collisions and Mergers

  • Note: galaxies do not make noise when they collide!

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Galaxy collision

Galaxy Collision

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Galaxy collisions part 2

Galaxy Collisions, Part 2

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Cartwheel galaxy

Cartwheel Galaxy

  • Wheel shape was formed from collision of two galaxies

  • Bright stars are forming at the edges of the wheel (105 light years in diameter)

  • Intruder galaxy is no longer visible

This is from HST

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Active galaxies and jets

Active Galaxies and Jets

  • What do Active Galaxies look like when viewed from different distances?

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Web resources

Web Resources

  • Astronomy picture of the Dayhttp://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/astropix.html

  • Imagine the Universehttp://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov

  • M87 radio images http://www.aoc.nrao.edu/~fowen/M87.html

  • Space Telescope Science Institute http://stsci.edu

  • Sloan Digital Sky Survey http://www.sdss.org/

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Web resources1

Web Resources

  • A. Ptak’s intermediate mass black hole in M82 http://astro.phys.cmu.edu/~ptak/m82/

  • T. di Matteo’s X-ray quiet AGN http://www-glast.sonoma.edu/HEADmeeting/tuesday/index.html

  • ROSAT X-ray images http://wave.xray.mpe.mpg.de/rosat/calendar/2000/oct

  • NCSA’s Unveiling the Hidden Universe http://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/Cyberia/Bima/BimaHome.html#Unveiling

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


Web resources2

Web Resources

  • NCSA M82 images http://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/Cyberia/Bima/ExtraGal.html

  • Galaxy Formation Movie from NCSA http://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/Cyberia/Cosmos/TheWorksMovies.html

Lynn Cominsky - Cosmology A350


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