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Chapter 8. Cell Reproduction. In a eukaryotic cell, one of the structures in the nucleus that is made up of DNA and protein; in a prokaryotic cell, the main ring of DNA. Chromosome. A type of protein molecule found in the chromosomes of eukaryotic cells but not prokaryotic cells. Histone.

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chapter 8

Chapter 8

Cell Reproduction

slide2
In a eukaryotic cell, one of the structures in the nucleus that is made up of DNA and protein; in a prokaryotic cell, the main ring of DNA

Chromosome

a type of protein molecule found in the chromosomes of eukaryotic cells but not prokaryotic cells
A type of protein molecule found in the chromosomes of eukaryotic cells but not prokaryotic cells

Histone

the region of the chromosome that holds the two sister chromatids together during mitosis
The region of the chromosome that holds the two sister chromatids together during mitosis

Centromere

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The material that makes up both mitotic and interphase chromosomes; a complex of proteins and DNA strands that are loosely coiled such that translation and transcription can occur

Chromatin

one of the pair of chromosomes that determines the sex of an individual xx female xy male
One of the pair of chromosomes that determines the sex of an individualXX = FemaleXY = Male

Sex chromosome

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Chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes, that have the same structure, and that pair during meiosis

Homologous chromosome

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A micrograph of the array of chromosomes visible in a cell during metaphase; a graphical display that shows an individual’s chromosomes arranged in homologous pairs and in order of diminishing size

Karyotype

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A form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size

Binary Fission

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In eukaryotic cells, the cell organelle that is surrounded by two membranes and that is the site of cellular respiration, which produces ATP

Mitosis

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Reproduction that does not involve the union of games and in which a single parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent

Asexual Reproduction

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A process in cell division during which the number of chromosomes decreases to half the original number by two divisions of the nucleus, which results in the production of sex cells (gametes or spores)

Meiosis

a haploid reproductive cell that unites with another haploid reproductive cell to form a zygote
A haploid reproductive cell that unites with another haploid reproductive cell to form a zygote

Gamete

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A period between two mitotic or meiotic divisions during which the cell grows, copies its DNA, and synthesizes proteins

Interphase

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The division of the cytoplasm of a cell; cytokinesis follows the division of the cell’s nucleus by mitosis or meiosis

Cytokinesis

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The first stage of mitosis and meiosis in cell division; characterized by the condensation of the chromosomes and the dissolution of the nuclear envelope

Prophase

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One of the microtubules that extend across a dividing eukaryotic cell; assists in the movement of chromosomes

Spindle fiber

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One of the stages of mitosis and meiosis, during which all of the chromosomes move to the cell’s equator

Metaphase

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The final stage of mitosis or meiosis, during which a nuclear membrane forms around each set of new chromosomes

Telophase

the precursor of a new plant cell wall that forms during cell division and divides a cell into two
The precursor of a new plant cell wall that forms during cell division and divides a cell into two

Cell Plate

slide27
The four chromatids in a pair of homologous chromosomes that come together as a result of synapsis during meiosis

Tetrad

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The exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during meiosis; can result in genetic recombination

Crossing-over

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The regrouping of genes in an offspring that results in a genetic makeup that is different from that of the parents

Genetic Recombination

the random distribution of the pairs of genes on different chromosomes to the gametes
The random distribution of the pairs of genes on different chromosomes to the gametes

Independent Assortment

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