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Chapter 8. Cell Reproduction. In a eukaryotic cell, one of the structures in the nucleus that is made up of DNA and protein; in a prokaryotic cell, the main ring of DNA. Chromosome. A type of protein molecule found in the chromosomes of eukaryotic cells but not prokaryotic cells. Histone.

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Chapter 8

Chapter 8

Cell Reproduction


In a eukaryotic cell, one of the structures in the nucleus that is made up of DNA and protein; in a prokaryotic cell, the main ring of DNA

Chromosome


A type of protein molecule found in the chromosomes of eukaryotic cells but not prokaryotic cells
A type of protein molecule found in the chromosomes of eukaryotic cells but not prokaryotic cells

Histone



The region of the chromosome that holds the two sister chromatids together during mitosis
The region of the chromosome that holds the two sister chromatids together during mitosis

Centromere


The material that makes up both mitotic and interphase chromosomes; a complex of proteins and DNA strands that are loosely coiled such that translation and transcription can occur

Chromatin


One of the pair of chromosomes that determines the sex of an individual xx female xy male
One of the pair of chromosomes that determines the sex of an individualXX = FemaleXY = Male

Sex chromosome



Chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes, that have the same structure, and that pair during meiosis

Homologous chromosome


A micrograph of the array of chromosomes visible in a cell during metaphase; a graphical display that shows an individual’s chromosomes arranged in homologous pairs and in order of diminishing size

Karyotype


A cell that contains two haploid sets of chromosomes
A cell that contains two haploid sets of chromosomes during metaphase; a graphical display that shows an individual’s chromosomes arranged in homologous pairs and in order of diminishing size

Diploid



A form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size

Binary Fission


In eukaryotic cells, the cell organelle that is surrounded by two membranes and that is the site of cellular respiration, which produces ATP

Mitosis


Reproduction that does not involve the union of games and in which a single parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent

Asexual Reproduction


A process in cell division during which the number of chromosomes decreases to half the original number by two divisions of the nucleus, which results in the production of sex cells (gametes or spores)

Meiosis


A haploid reproductive cell that unites with another haploid reproductive cell to form a zygote
A haploid reproductive cell that unites with another haploid reproductive cell to form a zygote

Gamete


A period between two mitotic or meiotic divisions during which the cell grows, copies its DNA, and synthesizes proteins

Interphase


The division of the cytoplasm of a cell; cytokinesis follows the division of the cell’s nucleus by mitosis or meiosis

Cytokinesis


The first stage of mitosis and meiosis in cell division; characterized by the condensation of the chromosomes and the dissolution of the nuclear envelope

Prophase


One of the microtubules that extend across a dividing eukaryotic cell; assists in the movement of chromosomes

Spindle fiber


One of the stages of mitosis and meiosis, during which all of the chromosomes move to the cell’s equator

Metaphase



The final stage of mitosis or meiosis, during which a nuclear membrane forms around each set of new chromosomes

Telophase


The precursor of a new plant cell wall that forms during cell division and divides a cell into two
The precursor of a new plant cell wall that forms during cell division and divides a cell into two

Cell Plate


The pairing of homologous chromosomes during meiosis
The pairing of homologous chromosomes during meiosis cell division and divides a cell into two

Synapsis


The four chromatids in a pair of homologous chromosomes that come together as a result of synapsis during meiosis

Tetrad


The exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during meiosis; can result in genetic recombination

Crossing-over


The regrouping of genes in an offspring that results in a genetic makeup that is different from that of the parents

Genetic Recombination


The random distribution of the pairs of genes on different chromosomes to the gametes
The random distribution of the pairs of genes on different chromosomes to the gametes

Independent Assortment


The process by which male gametes form
The process by which male gametes form chromosomes to the gametes

Spermatogenesis


The production growth and maturation of an egg or ovum
The production, growth, and maturation of an egg, or ovum chromosomes to the gametes

Oogenesis



Reproduction in which gametes from two parents unite
Reproduction in which gametes from two parents unite chromosomes to the gametes

Sexual Reproduction


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