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MBA 500 R3 Workshop 1. Foundations of Problem-Based Learning. Joseph Lewis Aguirre. This Afternoon - The View. 6:00 – 7:15 Background and philosophy behind PBL and MBA v. 20 Per PowerPoint slide show Q and A 10:15 – 10:30 break 7:30 – 8:00 8:00 - 10 Process Designate a “facilitator”

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MBA 500 R3

Workshop 1

Foundations of Problem-Based Learning

Joseph Lewis Aguirre


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This Afternoon - The View

  • 6:00 – 7:15 Background and philosophy behind PBL and MBA v. 20

    Per PowerPoint slide show

  • Q and A

  • 10:15 – 10:30 break

  • 7:30 – 8:00

  • 8:00 - 10 Process

  • Designate a “facilitator”

  • Assemble Learning Teams

  • Distribute ONLY the scenario to each learning team

  • Give the scenario guide ONLY to the facilitator

  • Facilitator leads the group in the first 1 or 2 steps.

  • Request an additional volunteer to facilitate the remaining steps 2 and 3 only.

  • General Q and A and distribution of the “answers” via the scenario guide for ALL to process what was learned.


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WS1: Goals for Today

  • Define the value of the MBA.

  • University of Phoenix Vs other MBA’s

  • Value of critical thinking in decision making.

  • UOP Library.

  • APA method for scholastic writing.

  • Center for Writing Excellence.

  • Plagiarism Checker.

  • Collaborative learning.



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Self Introduction

  • Name

  • Background

  • Home location and Place you facilitate

  • Courses you facilitate

  • Occupation/location

  • One thing about me (something unique about yourself nobody would know you would feel comfortable sharing)

  • Myers Briggs Tendency Indicator (MBTI)

  • Write this information on your name tents, you will use it for choosing teams


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Personal Positioning Statement

Simulating a generalized communication system


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How do You Spell Success

  • Being successful in our occupation requires:

    • Lifelong Learning

    • Constant Personal and Professional Updating

    • Always working to improve to stay ahead of the competitors

    • Integrating Technology into personal and professional plans

    • Being multidimensional

    • Love what you do, do what you love!

    • Do you agree????????


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What I Must Do

  • YOUR THOUGHTS?

  • If Joseph were to help me with………

    in this class, I know I can complete THIS class and the program.


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Managers or MBAs?

“Trying to teach people who have never practiced is worse than a waste of time – it demeans management”.

Dr. Henry Mintzberg


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Skill

Percent of Employers who rated this as “important” or “very important”*

Interpersonal & Communication Skills

96%

Learning Aptitude & Desire to Grow

95%

Collaboration and Teamwork

93%

Creative Problem Solving

92%

What Employers Want


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Managers or MBAs?

Citation from the book Managers Not MBAs, by renown author Henry Mintzberg

Note: Dr. Mintzberg obtained his PhD and his MS in Management from MIT's Sloan School of Management and is well known for his studies of strategic development and of managerial practice.


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Course Basics

Student Web Page

https://mycampus.phoenix.edu/login.asp

rEsource

Access to electronic course materials on Student Web Page. Electronic materials include the syllabus, required readings, additional articles, and a variety of multimedia materials to enhance educational experience


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Course Basics

Center for Writing Excellence - Accessible from Student Web Page. Link is located under the Services menu on the main page. Once you access the page, you’ll see two buttons at the bottom: Reviewing Services and Tutorials & Guides.


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Course Basics

Reviewing Services- Upload drafts of papers & within 48 hours, you’ll have feedback regarding how to improve your academic papers, as well as your writing style.


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Course Basics- Tutorials

Tutorial & Guides- Contains helpful resources:

  • The Grammar Expert:

  • Longman Exercise Zone: -This site contains a diagnostic test that will give you specific feedback regarding your grammatical strengths and weaknesses so you’ll know exactly what tutorial you need to take!


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Course Basics- Tutorials, Cont.

Tutorial & Guides- Contains helpful resources:

  • Common Errors in English:

  • APA Sample Paper–Referencing the APA Publication Manual:

  • Plagiarism Tutorial:

  • University of Phoenix Library Tutorial: Microsoft® Tips and Tools:


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Decision Making Framework

Information Characteristics

Decision Structure

Pre specified Scheduled Detailed Frequent Historical Internal Narrow Focus

Business Professionals

Operational Management Efficient, do thing right

Structured

Tactical Management Business Unit Managers -Effective, right thing

Ad Hoc Unscheduled Summarized Infrequent Forward looking External Wide Scope

Semi Structured

Strategic Management Executives, Directors -Transformation

Un Structured

RELATIVE TIME SPAN


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WS2: Key Concepts in Decision Making

  • Justify the use of decision-making models.

  • Analyze the elements of decision-making models.

  • Perform a situation analysis.

  • Differentiate between symptoms and problems.

  • Develop alternative solutions.

  • Evaluate alternative solutions.

  • Describe how personal, cultural, and organizational values impact ethical decision-making.

  • Select the best possible solution.


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WS3: Critical Analysis in Decision Making

  • Examine the 9-step decision-making model.

  • Explain each step of the problem-solving model.

  • Explain the interrelationship among the problem solution, individual ethical values, and stakeholder values.

  • Create an effective presentation.


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WS4: Key Concepts of Problem Based Learning

  • Evaluate information sources.

  • Apply the principles of generic benchmarking.

  • Describe how content in problem based learning (PBL) is applied to the scenario.

  • Impact of Risk and Ethics on Decision Making


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WS5: Impact of Risk and Ethics on Decision Making

  • Assess the risk of alternative action.

  • Evaluate the probability and severity of risk factors.

  • Describe ways to mitigate risk.

  • Infer stakeholder values with limited information.


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WS6: Critical Analysis of Business Solutions

  • Develop measures (metrics) for performance evaluation, the success of implementation, and the attainment of end-state goals.


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WS1: MBA Tools and Competencies

  • Define the value of the MBA.

  • University of Phoenix Vs other MBA’s

  • Value of critical thinking in decision making.

  • UOP Library.

  • APA method for scholastic writing.

  • Center for Writing Excellence.

  • Plagiarism Checker.

  • Collaborative learning.


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WS1: MBA Tools and Competencies

  • Define the value of the MBA.

  • University of Phoenix Vs other MBA’s

  • Value of critical thinking in decision making.

  • UOP Library.

  • APA method for scholastic writing.

  • Center for Writing Excellence.

  • Plagiarism Checker.

  • Collaborative learning.


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WS1: MBA Tools and Competencies

  • Define the value of the MBA.

  • University of Phoenix Vs other MBA’s

  • Value of critical thinking in decision making.

  • UOP Library.

  • APA method for scholastic writing.

  • Center for Writing Excellence.

  • Plagiarism Checker.

  • Collaborative learning.


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WS1: MBA Tools and Competencies

  • Define the value of the MBA.

  • University of Phoenix Vs other MBA’s

  • Value of critical thinking in decision making.

  • UOP Library.

  • APA method for scholastic writing.

  • Center for Writing Excellence.

  • Plagiarism Checker.

  • Collaborative learning.






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SOURCES OF CONFLICT

EXPERT ADVICE

  • Scarce resources

  • Lack of information

  • Conflicting values, interests, or belief systems

  • Power imbalances

  • Physiological (illness)

  • Hidden agendas


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HEALTHY CONFLICT IN TEAMS

EXPERT ADVICE

  • Identification and discussion of issues by team members

  • Use of appropriate listening and questioning skills

  • Team members’ ability to manage strong feelings

  • Team members’ ability to separate interests from positions

  • Willingness to discuss issues and needs to mutual resolution (win-win)

  • Individual use of critical thinking skills

  • Allows for change to occur


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UNHEALTHY CONFLICT IN TEAMS

EXPERT ADVICE

  • Individuals are identified as the problem(s) instead of issues

  • Distorted communication, rumors, gossip, innuendos, secrets, collusion etc.

  • Inappropriate displays of strong emotions; anger and frustration that could lead to violence.

  • Individuals are synonymous with positions; polarization

  • Team can fragment

  • Escalation of issues; higher authority, could lead to legal actions


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CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STYLES

EXPERT ADVICE

  • Avoidance

    • Low concern for results/assertiveness

    • Low concern for people/cooperation

    • Uncomfortable with conflict

    • May believe that agreement is not possible

    • (Lose-lose orientation)


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CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STYLES

EXPERT ADVICE

2. Accommodation

  • Low concern for results/assertiveness

  • High concern for people/cooperation,

  • Uncomfortable with conflict

  • May be willing to sacrifice own needs in order to meet the needs of another

  • (Lose-win orientation)

    3. Competition

    4. Compromise

    5. Collaboration


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CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STYLES

EXPERT ADVICE

3. Competition

  • High concern for results/assertiveness

  • Low concern for people/cooperation

  • May enjoy conflict and sacrifice relationships with others in order to win

  • (Win-lose orientation)

    4. Compromise

    5. Collaboration


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CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STYLES

EXPERT ADVICE

4. Compromise

  • Moderate concern for results/assertiveness

  • Moderate concern for people/cooperation

  • May not see that a win-win is an option

  • Will give up some interests for others- meets some needs

  • Win/lose: lose/win orientation)

    5. Collaboration


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CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STYLES

EXPERT ADVICE

5. Collaboration

  • High concern for results/assertiveness

  • High concern for people/cooperation

  • Strives to meet the needs of all parties

  • (Win/win orientation)


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Window on World of DP

Intent Need Category

Get it done right Control Ruler Get it done right Accuracy Analyzer Get Along Approval Relater Get Appreciated Attention Entertainer

Task Oriented

Analyzer

Ruler

Entertainer

Relater

People Oriented

Passive

Aggressive


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Window Into Conflict Resolution

Non-adversarial

attitude toward other

Adversarial

attitude toward other

A number value for your organization

A number value for your organization

Detachment

Collaboration

Evasion

Coercion

Engagement

with other

Disengagement

from other


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30% of a managers time is spent dealing with conflict

Fortune 500 company executives are involved in litigation related activity 20% of their time.

Conflict Resolution Strategy

Step 1: SWOT

Step 2: Train - Establish the core competencies

Step 3: Coach ~ Support the learning

Step 4: Enable - Remove the obstacles – culture driven

Step 5: Institutionalize ~ Train in-house experts

Establish a panel of skilled mediators to resolve disputes that are not successfully resolved by the core competencies gained by Training (Step 2) and supported by Coaching (Step 3).

Step 6: Feedback - Compare to benchmarks


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EXPERT ADVICE

EXPERT ADVICE

  •   "I think there is a world market for maybe five computers" - Thomas Watson, IBM president, 1943.

  • "Television won't last because people will soon get tired of staring at a plywood box every night" - producer Darryl Zanuck, Twentieth-Century Fox, 1946.    


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EXPERT ADVICE

EXPERT ADVICE

  • "There is no need for any individual to have a computer in their home" - Ken Olson, president of Digital Equipment Corp., 1977.

  • "640k ought to be enough for anybody" - Microsoft founder Bill Gates, 1981


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WHERE DO I WANT TO GO TODAY?

"Cheshire-Puss," she began, rather timidly, "Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to go from here?"

"That depends a great deal on where you want to get to," said the cat.

"I don't much care where -," said Alice.

"Then it doesn't matter which way you go," said the cat.

--Lewis Carroll

Alice in Wonderland

-


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Creating a New System

“It must be remembered that there is nothing

more difficult to plan, more doubtful of

success, more dangerous to manage, than the

creation of a new system. For the initiator has

the enmity of all who would profit by the

preservation of the old institutions and merely

lukewarm defenders in those who would gain

by the new ones.

—NiccoloMachiavelli


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"Despite the existence of more and better information than ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

-- Peter Tobia, author, "Decision Making in the Digital Age: Challenges and Responses,"

Information Age Paradox


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Planning, Tools and Descriptions ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

It is not the plan that matters, It’s the planning.

-General Dwight D. Eisenhower

Graphical Diagrams do not constitute a specification….nothing replaces clear, concise text.

- David A. Ruble


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Planning, Tools and Descriptions ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

At a recent study, I commented at one point in our deliberations that we had spent more time on wordsmithing than we had on considering the substance of our report.

-- Robert W. Lucky, VP for Applied Research at Telecordia. NJ

It seems to me language by its very nature is imprecise. I think of each word as inhabiting a fuzzy ball of uncertain semantic meaning….

– Robert W. Lucky


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Decisions ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

My BASIC principle is that you don't make decisions because they are easy; you don't make them because they are cheap; you don't make them because they're popular; you make them because they're right

-- Theodore Hesburgh, C.S.C. Former President of Notre Dame


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Individual Vs Collective Intelligence ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

No one in this world, so far as I know, has ever lost money by underestimating the intelligence of the great masses of the plain people

-H. L. Mencken

Large groups of people are smarter than an elite few, no matter how brilliant—better at solving problems, fostering innovation, coming to wise decisions, even predicting the future.

-James Surowiecki


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Decision Making Preconditions ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

1. There must be an awareness of the existence of a gap

2. There must be a perceived need to solve the problem

3. There must be some way to measure the size of the gap

4. The skills and resources needed to solve the problem must be present or at least easily obtainable


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Decision Strategies ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Optimization

Satisficing

Elimination by aspects – eliminate all alternatives that fail with respect to a particular aspect


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Decision Strategies ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Instrumentalism – muddling through – compare alternative courses of action to the current one

Mixed scanning – search for, collection, processing, evaluating and weighing of information. The importance of the decision determines the degree of scanning

Analytical Hierarchical Process


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Generalized System ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Control

Input

Processing

Output

Environment

System

Components, Relationships, Boundaries, Interfaces, Constraints


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Modem Communications System ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Control

Modem

Modem

00100010101000110001111111000110001

Message

Message Received

Destination

Info Source

Noise


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Generalized Communications System ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Control

Transmitter

Transmission

Channel

Receiver

00100010101000110001111111000110001

Message

Message Received

Destination

Info Source

Noise


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Modem Communications System ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Control

Modem

Modem

00100010101000110001111111000110001

Message

Message Received

Destination

Info Source

Noise


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Management Roles ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Mintzberg’s 10 Management Roles:

Interpersonal Figurehead Leader Liaison

Informational Monitor Disseminator Spokesperson

Decisional Entrepreneur Disturbance Handler Resource Allocator Negotiator


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Decision Structure ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Structure

Non- collaborative

Collaborative

Weighted

Committee

Individual

Consensus

Majority

Weighted

Consensus

Majority


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Decision Making Process ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Implementation

Decision Maker

Problem Definition

Stimulus


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Decision Making Process ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Intelligent Phase

Objectives Problem statement Data Collection

Design Phase

Modeling Criteria Alternatives

Choice

Solutions to the Model Sensitivity Analysis Plan for implementation

Implementation


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Decision Making: Intelligence ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Problem Identification

Problem Classification

Problem Ownership


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Decision Making: Design ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Modeling

Criteria

Alternatives


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Decision Making: Choice ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Search appropriate action - Blind

- Heuristic


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Decision Making: Evaluation ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Multiple Goals

Sensitivity Analysis

What-If

Goal Seeking


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Alternative Decision Making Models ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

  • Paterson’s 5-step

  • Pounds’ 8-step

  • Kepner-Trego 3-step

  • Hammond elements for smart choices

  • Cougar’s Creative Problem-Solving

  • Pokras’ 6-step

  • Bazerman 6-step anatomy of a decision

  • Beach’s naturalistic decision theories


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Decision Making ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

16

16

Decision: Commitment to action

4

1

11

5

12

13

3

8

14

6

2

9

17

15

10

7


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Decision Making Knowledge Based ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

4

4

1

1

11

11

5

5

12

12

13

13

3

3

8

8

14

14

6

6

2

2

9

9

17

17

15

15

10

10

16

16

7

7

F(h)

Knowledge0

Knowledge1


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Decision Making Context ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Management Level

Organizational Design

Concurrency

Maturity


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Knowledge Base ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

16

16

4

1

11

5

12

13

3

8

14

6

2

9

17

15

10

7


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Problem Solving ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Intelligence

Problem

Space

Problem

Space

Design

Choice


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Decision Styles ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Task Oriented

Analyzer

Ruler

Entertainer

Relater

People Oriented

Passive

Aggressive

Intent Need Category

Get it done right Control Ruler Get it done right Accuracy Analyzer Get Along Approval Relater Get Appreciated Attention Entertainer


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Managerial Decision Making and DSS ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

How are decisions made at work?


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Decision Making Drivers ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Decision Making Drivers at Work:

Decision Making Drivers at Large :

Technology Complexity Competition Globalization Environmental/Regulatory Change


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DECISION SUPPORT DRIVERS ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

  • Speed, Timeliness

  • Accuracy

  • Cost Reduction

  • Increased Productivity

  • Technical Support

  • Quality Support

  • Competitive Tool

  • Overcome Cognitive Limits in Processing and Storage


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Organizational Culture ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Individual Initiative – individual freedom, independence

Risk Tolerance – degree to which employee is encouraged

Directions – Clarify of objectives and performance

Integration

Management support – clear communication and support

Control – rules and regulations

Identity – Identity to corporate or group

Reward System

Conflict Tolerance

Communications pattern – hierarchical structure


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Organizational Resources ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Money

Materials

People

Knowledge

Money

Material

Human

Knowledge

Funds

Products

Services

Knowledge

INPUTS

RESOURCES

OUTPUTS

Feedback


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Organizational Culture ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Values – risk taking, ethics,

Goals: Clarity, Commitment, Consistency

Structure– reward system consistent with values and goals, accountability, reporting (C3), decision making, walk the talk, feedback

Climate - Enthusiasm, Competition (supporting goals), Creativity. Collaboration. F;exibility, Involvement, Trust. Creative stress/

Environment – Other Teams/organizations, marketplace, Culture, Competition, Pressures


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Organizational Effectiveness ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

ENVIRONMENT

CLIMATE

Other Teams

Marketplace

Enthusiasm

STRUCTURE

Competition

Accountability

Reward System

GOALS

Reporting Relationships

Creativity

Values

Clarity

Commitment

Mission Philosophy

Collaboration

Stress

Feedback System

Decision Making

Behavior Norm

Flexibility

Trust

Competition

Culture

Involvement

Pressures


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Decision Strategies ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Optimization

Satisficing

Elimination by aspects – eliminate all alternatives that fail with respect to a particular aspect

Instrumentalism – muddling through – compare alternative courses of action to the current one

Mixed scanning – search for, collection, processing, evaluating and weighing of information. The importance of the decision determines the degree of scanning

Analytical Hierarchical Process – decompose the overall decision objective into a a hierarchic structure of criteria, sub-criteria and alternatives


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Information ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

  • Information– Qualified Data or Value

    • relevant

    • timely

  • Associated Symbolic Data

530-34-5880 Joseph L. Aguirre 123 Anywhere 459-2978


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Knowledge ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

  • Knowledge:

    • data get organized into information

    • information gets organized into: concepts, beliefs, ideas

Info

Info

concepts

beliefs

ideas

Info

Info

Info

Info


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Knowledge - Bloom ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Benjamin Bloom’s Taxonomy Chart

Knowledge

Comprehension

Application

Analysis

Synthesis

Evaluation


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Knowledge Hierarchy ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Meta

knowledge

Knowledge

Information

Data

Noise


Knowledge l.jpg

Processed ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Relevant, actionable

Information

Knowledge

Data

Contextual, relevant, actionable

Knowledge


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Problem Solving ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Any problem can be viewed as a system that we are attempting to analyze and develop an equivalent to:

Input

Output

Black Box


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